University of Utah

Special Collections

Wilbur H. Smith Papers

Ms 563

History [of the Bingham Mining District]

[by Thomas Parry Billings (1884-1977), written c.1952]

It has been claimed that the Mormons who settled in Utah in 1847 were aware of the presence of non-ferrous minerals in Bingham Canyon soon after their arrival. But it was not until General P.E. Connor and his California volunteers under orders to continue on to Utah where he established Camp Douglas on the 24th of October 1862 overlooking Salt Lake City that any attention was given to the mineral possibilities of this region. In the fall of 1863 George B. Ogilvie, an apostate Mormon found specimens of mineral in Bingham Canyon and immediately reported his discovery to General Connor, whereupon the men were encouraged by the General to go out and prospect the surrounding country and the first recorded discovery of ore was made on the discovery location of the Jordan Silver mining claim on September 17, 1863 and the West Mountain (Bingham) Mining District was organized. The location included 24 locations besides Mr. Ogilvie, the discoverer, and General Connor was one of the locators. At that time there were no laws governing mining locations but these pioneers resolved that while there was no law, there should be order and every man should be secure in what was rightly his. They appointed their own Committee of miners and made their own rules, one of which was that a locator was allowed 200 feet of a vein with the right to follow such vein down to the center of the earth with all of its dips, spurs and angles and the rules then established in the West were a basis for the statutes by our Federal Government made in 1866 and 1872, especially with respect to extra-lateral rights to a vein, the application of which has resulted in hundreds of lawsuits over the past years involving millions of dollars.

Pursuant to the rules established by these pioneer miners the Jordan claim, now owned by the USCo, was made 5200' in length. In addition to 200 feet allowed each locator, there being 25 locators such group under the early laws could include a discovery claim of 200 feet. Great credit is due the original locators in the masterful manner by which they established the position of this claim to cover the lode. This was borne out in the years to follow by the great legal battles of Bingham fought out over areas along the Jordan limestone. In practically all of the suits either the USCo or its immediate predecessors were involved and the judicial decisions made have been the guide for later cases in many parts of the west and without a single exception they finally were decided in favor of the USCo and its immediate predecessors much to the credit of A.F. Holden.

Mr. A.F. Holden, a young mining engineer who had gained considerable experience under his father, L.E. Holden, visualized the possibilities of the intensely mineralized Bingham area especially those related to the Jordan broad lode and the principal fissures. With an abiding faith in this well defined lode he concentrated his efforts in the acquisition of properties located on this lode, also, the consolidation of three richly mineralized groups of mining claims in Bingham all of which were located upon the Jordan limestone and finally the organization on March 26, 1899, of the United States Mining Company which began a new era for mining in Utah.

About this time, in the late nineties, another person, Enos A. Wall was attracted to the Bingham District. An experienced mine operator and promotor, [Wall] had gained considerable experience in the Hailey district in Idaho and Ophir and Mercur districts in Utah. He was a strong character, thrived on battles and had mastered the art, as known at that time, of milling crude ores, also possessed inventive genius as evidenced by many patents covering the milling of ores. Mr. Wall acquired interests in properties adjoining those of the United States Mining Company and so situated as to cover portions of the Jordan lode on its dip, while the United States Company held the apex of this lode with prior locations, and in the exercise of its extra-lateral rights the USCo became involved in lawsuits with the Wall interests known as the Montana Case and the Kempton Case. Some of the most protracted litigation recorded in the State of Utah was in connection with these cases. Here were two strong men in combat, each with an array of the best mining experts and legal brains of that time. At no time would either man entertain a compromise and the lawsuits frequently resulted in ill will and vindictiveness, by the losing party as evidenced by the building of fires and the blasting down of a tunnel portal. The so-called Kempton case began in 1901. It was bitterly fought and practically every year the USCo had to answer one or more complaints, all of which resulted in the USCo's favor, until 1920 when the Case terminated by the death of Mr. Wall.

Mr Wall, however gained greater prominence as the man who probably was the first to recognize the possibilities of concentrating the lowgrade porphyry copper ores constituting the Utah Copper orebody in the formation of the Wall Group of claims on this deposit and at the center of the present Utah Copper Pit in Bingham Canyon.

This group consisted of 15 mining and fractional claims, all contiguous comprising 179.200 acres and extending from the main Bingham Canyon up the slopes to the east and west. The first discovery on the great Utah Copper orebody, however, was made at a much earlier date by the soldiers under General P.E. Connor who drove a tunnel known as Soldiers' Tunnel on this discovery. The portal of this tunnel was under a prominent cliff on the west side of Bingham Canyon about 200 feet above the floor of the canyon and it was driven northwesterly directly into the area which now is the center of the Pit. The tunnel disclosed oxidized copper ore averaging 4 per cent, and it was later extended by subsequent owners which with laterals amounted to about a mile of workings and the results of this work no doubt were largely a basis and instrumental in the early planning of the vast Utah Copper Pit operation.

In 1888 Mr. Wall located the Dick Mackintosh and Charles Reed claims, named after two early day prominent Utah Mining men and his close friends. Locations by Wall of adjoining ground followed, the Rudder, Rudder Fraction, Frank Cushing (named after another close friend), Florence B., J.R. Bush Placer, and Mattie. Then in 1898 and 1899 Mr. Wall purchased the following claims adjoining his, the Emma, Emma No. 1 and Emma No. 2 from Barney Quinn, the Alls Well, Elvena No. 2 and Mary Bell from John B. Stephens, and the W.J. Bryan from Warren L. Wilt. During the period prior to Mr. Wall's interest in this low grade disseminated copper deposit this ground had been located, abandoned then re-located many times over, and development work had been confined in most part to relatively strong fissures that traversed the porphyry mass and extended into the marginal quartzite. Along these fissure veins were disclosed small bodies of relatively high grade copper ore containing appreciable amounts of gold, although with selective mining the operations were invariably unprofitable.

In 1898 Mr. Wall interested J.R. DeLamar in his Bingham Copper property. At that time Mr. DeLamar was successfully operating a gold property in Mercur, Utah, using the cyanide process for the recovery of the gold content. At this Mercur operation was D.C. Jackling, metallurgist and superintendent of the Mill and Robert Gemmell, mine engineer. Mr. DeLamar assigned D.C. Jackling and Robert Gemmell to the examination of the property including further development of the disseminated copper orebody and testing the ore for concentration. At that time there appeared to be a growing surplus of copper obtained from high grade ores in Michigan, Butte, Arizona and the limestone replacement deposits in Bingham which is said to have discouraged Mr. DeLamar from so bold an undertaking in the face of low-grade ore, great engineering and metallurgical problems, large capital investment, unknown future prices for copper, and competition by the large producers of high grade copper ores who boasted about their immense resources of copper.

But the potentialities of this great low grade disseminated copper deposit had made a lasting impression upon Mr. Jackling and by 1903 he had convinced his former employers Charles M. MacNeill and Spencer Penrose of Colorado, of its magnitude and that it could be mined at a profit. And in that year Mr. Jackling with the help of W.S. McCormick, Salt Lake Banker and close friend of Mr. Wall negotiated the purchase of the Wall group of claims and the organization of the Utah Copper Company.

This venture was an experiment which was to exert much influence upon the future of the Bingham district and other regions of the West in the mining and concentration on a large scale of low grade disseminated copper ores. It was fortunate that Jackling with his technical skill and experience, capacity for work and organization, his financial sagacity and boldness, both of concept and execution, had been appointed General Manager.

Unlike the many ventures on similar ore deposits that followed, the operations at the Utah Copper property had its beginning in a comparatively humble way. Based upon his experience at Mercur, Utah where the block caving system of underground mining was first used in the West, Jackling introduced this system at the Utah Copper mine, and brought the men to supervise the mining that had been with him in its operation at Mercur. Also, for the concentration of the ore he brought Frank Janney as supervisor along with other experienced mill operators from Mercur and his clerical force in large part was his former employees at Mercur. Most of these men continued their working period of life under Jackling for whom they showed great admiration and loyalty.

A concentrator, in large part shipped from Colorado was erected near the lower end of Bingham Canyon opposite the site of the No. 1 shaft of the West Mountain Placer Company and approximately __ miles below the mine. Water used for the gravity concentration of the ores was procured by pumping from this shaft.

The topography of the Bingham district afforded visible outcrops of the veins and lodes with extensive exposures of the different minerals which were favorable to the first mining. The near-surface initial successes carried on over a vast area along with the marked success of the USCo on a relatively large scale together with the discovery of what was considered as the largest replacement of high-grade copper ore in limestone by Samuel Newhouse and associates in the Highland Boy mine in Bingham, began to attract the attention of eastern capitalists who no longer were willing to accept Bill Nye's definition of a mine as "a hole in the ground and the owner the biggest liar on earth." So at the turn of the century the fame of the mineral wealth over this area of __ square miles had traveled far and wide. Three was great activity in the development of this great mineral resource constituting no less than a hundred mining operations, small and large carried on in the main Bingham Canyon, its tributaries Galena Gulch, Bear Gulch, Carr Fork, Cottonwood Gulch, Muddy Gulch, Sap Gulch, Dixon Gulch, Markham Gulch, McGuire Gulch, Freeman Gulch, and Winamuck Gulch. Also extensive mining operations in the Lark area and Butterfield Canyon adjoining Bingham Canyon on the south and southeast.

This period from 1896 to 1904 was characterized by the appearance of mining engineers representing prominent mining companies and examining the various properties and prospects, also promotion engineers working toward the consolidation of small groups and the acquisition of adjoining ground, either through purchases, options or locations, into large tracts under individual companies, many of which were strongly financed to carry on extensive development and exploration.

The exploration by such companies as the USCo, Highland Boy, Bingham Copper and Gold, Boston Consolidated, Yampa and Bingham Consolidated proved successful and as a result of the developments in these properties, extensive equipment for mining, transportation and reducing copper-sulphide ores were constructed and installed. The early day mining of near-surface ores was practically all hand work, drilling, mucking and tramming. The transportation was generally by gravity or mule trams to a nearby mill or by wagons drawn by six horse teams to either the nearest railroad at the lower end of Bingham Canyon or to a smelter in Salt Lake Valley.

Large steam-power plants were constructed to operate compressor plants, supplying air for machine drilling to replace hand drilling, and the generation of electricity for locomotive haulage to replace man or mule haulage underground.

In 1900 hydro-electric power was introduced in the Bingham district by L.L. Nunn of the Telluride Power Company and then commenced the replacement of steam power.

For the transportation of ores aerial tramway systems were erected. The United States Company's trainway extended from the Galena shaft, in the Jordan area down Galena Gulch to its junction with the main Bingham Canyon to an angle station, thence by direct line down the east slope of Bingham Canyon to loading bins on the D&RG Company's Bingham branch which had been constructed in 1873, first as a narrow gauge railroad and replaced in 1900 by standard gauge tracks. Also three aerial tramway systems were erected by the Highland Boy, Bingham-New Haven and Yampa companies for the transportation of their respective ores mined in the upper areas of Carr Fork. Such ores of the Highland Boy and Bingham-New Haven were finally loaded into railroad cars of the D&RG railroad at the lower end of Bingham, while the Yampa company's ores were transported directly to its copper smelter erected in 1904 on the northwest side of lower Bingham. In the Lark area of the Bingham district the Bingham Consolidated constructed a trolley electric operated surface tramway to transport its ores from the Brooklyn and Dalton and Lark mines on the east slope of the Oquirrh range and the ores of the Fortuna Mining Company located in Keystone gulch down to loading bins on the Lark branch of the D&RG railroad. To supplement the aerial bucket tramways the Copper Belt standard gauge railroad was constructed by private mining men in 1902, commencing at the end of the D&RG Bingham tracks in lower Bingham Canyon, it traversed the east slope of the main canyon almost up to Galena Gulch where it crossed over to the west side of the canyon, thence a branch took off toward the west, up Copper Center Gulch to the portal of the Mormon Tunnel of the Commercial mine and later another branch was constructed to cross the _________ Utah Copper _____, thence northerly along the west slope of the Utah Copper property to the southeast slope of Carr Fork where the tracks on a sharp curve turned southwesterly and continued along this southwest slope parallel to Carr Fork up to the loading bins of the Yampa and Boston Consolidated mines. Also, a siding took off from the main line on the east slope of Bingham Canyon to the Utah Copper ore bins at the portal of the Quinn Tunnel.

In the middle nineties Messrs. Samuel Newhouse and Thomas Weir acquired the Highland Boy mine, then consolidated and bonded a large group of adjacent claims. At first this property was worked for its near surface gold ores and a stamp and cyanide mill was constructed for the treatment of such ores, then two lower tunnels were driven to the orebodies at depth disclosing copper sulphide ore when they sold the property to parties that organized the Utah Consolidated Mining Company. In 1896 (with its main office in London which was transferred to New York City in 1902.) J. Parke Channing, mining engineer, recognized the possibilities of the immense size and richness of the copper sulphide ore bodies as replacements in limestone, and recommended the property to his clients. And for many years took a leading part in the policies and operations of this company. This was the first practical working of sulphide copper ore in Bingham and the great success of this venture was instrumental in the revival and impetus of mining in Bingham.

Both Messrs. Newhouse and Weir had an abiding faith in the potentialities of the district and continued in new ventures, Mr. Newhouse by acquiring the Stewart mine on the east slope of Muddy Fork, the nucleus of the Armstrong area, which with later acquisitions of adjoining properties and locations of ground regarded as practically worthless, northeasterly down Copper Center Gulch to main Bingham Canyon resulted in the organization of the Boston Consolidated Mining Company later merged with the Utah Copper Company in 1910. The workings near surface disclosed gold ores exploited in early days which gave way to sulfides of copper and lead at relatively shallow depths. The Copper Center group contains a large portion of the Utah Copper porphyry stock and had been quite extensively explored by tunnels driven from Copper Center gulch which disclosed large tonnages of disseminated copper ore, however, lower in grade than that found in the Wall group.

Mr. Weir acquired at this time the Columbia mine and with Henry Catrow associates of Ohio organized in 1903 the Ohio Copper Company which in 1906 was sold to F. Augustus Heinze. Immediately following this sale Mr. Weir acquired control of the Winamuck and Dixon, adjoining mines in the lower Bingham area. With acquisitions of other adjacent groups he organized the Utah Copper Company comprising ______ acres.

The properties heretofore discussed are with two exceptions, the Highland Boy and Yampa parts of the great expanding plans of either the Utah Copper Company or the USCo in the Bingham district.

During this period 1896-1904 the intensive exploration and development of the copper sulphide ores occurring in limestone as depth was gained under the oxidized ores which had been exploited for their gold content, had proved successful. Consequently this period was also characterized by the construction of smelters for reducing copper ores. The first of these copper pyritic smelters was constructed by the Utah Consolidated in 1897 in the Salt Lake Valley just south of Murray for the direct treatment of the Highland Boy ores.

Results of development work conducted by the US Mining Company at Bingham, and its subsidiary the Centennial-Eureka mine at Eureka, Utah induced this company to construct its own copper smelter.

The Bingham Copper and Gold Company was organized in December 1898 to work the carbonate and oxidized ores of the Commercial Mine which under the ownership of the Bingham Gold Mining Company was exploited for oxidized gold ore and treated by the cyanide process without success. Under the new ownership extensive exploration at depth was carried on and the results led to the construction of a semipyritic smelter in 1901 at Bingham Junction, now Midvale, Utah. This smelter went into commission in November 1902, originally built with a capacity of 1000 tons for treating copper ore and in 1905 a plant of 400 tons capacity for treating silver-lead ores was added on a tract of land adjoining on the north the USCo smelter. The Brooklyn and Dalton Lark properties acquired by this company in 1901 were unwatered by the driving of the Mascotte tunnel and shipments from these holdings commenced in 1903. These with increased productions from the Commercial mine and contracts for the treatment of the Boston Consolidated Stewart mine production and the copper concentrates from the Utah Copper porphyry operation necessitated additional furnaces and converters. Also, with the development of silver-lead ores in the Dalton Lark group, a lead furnace was added.

The Yampa Consolidated Company had acquired the Yampa mine and adjoining claims on the north slope of Carr Fork, covering the Yampa limestone north of and overlying the Highland Boy limestone. An extensive program of development was initiated resulting in the discovery of large deposits of copper sulphide ores which justified the construction of its own smelter. The production from development work and mining was first shipped under contract to the Bingham Copper and Gold Company smelter in Salt Lake Valley. The Yampa smelter, located on the west slope of the main canyon below the town of Bingham, started operations in the early part of 1904, producing a copper matte which was shipped to one of the Salt Lake

Valley smelters for converting into slab copper preparatory for refining.

Simultaneously with the activity and success of the larger operations cited, there was considerable exploration carried on in the smaller mines, many of which disclosed valuable orebodies of both copper gold and lead-silver ores. Characteristic of the ore occurrences in the Bingham district, the lead and copper sulphide orebodies found in the fissures and limestone replacement deposits are relatively close together, in places one giving way to the other as the mining advances. However, nature has segregated these two ores to such a degree that by selective mining two products are obtained which greatly simplifies the processing, smelting and refining to the finished metals. Also it is noted that the gold is generally found accompanying the copper ores, while the silver accompanies the lead, and usually in appreciable amounts.

The old Mingo smelter at Sandy and Hanover plant at Bingham Junction had become obsolete and were razed and the Germania lead smelter, near Murray did not have the capacity necessary for the treatment of the increased production of lead-silver ores.

Based upon an assured and probable tonnage of lead ores for many years from the Bingham district, Park City and Tintic districts and other areas in Utah, the American Smelting and Refining Company in 1901, erected a modern extensive plant for smelting lead ores at Murray in the Salt Lake Valley.

By 1906, the Salt Lake Valley had become one of the greatest smelting centers in the world for both lead and copper. During the ten years prior to 1906, there was marked yearly increase in the production of lead, copper, gold and silver from the Bingham district and it had become the leading copper producing camp in Utah.

By 1904 the new caving system of copper mining and metallurgical treatment introduced by D.C. Jackling in Bingham on the huge deposit in the Wall group, calculated to carry two percent ore, had attained such success that a still more radical change was planned, the open-pit mining of copper ore by the use of steam shovels, railroads, and larger concentrating mills. This transformation in the copper producing industry has made available a plentiful supply of metal to meet the growing need by the electric power industry in its great and rapid progress in the generation, transmission and use of electric energy for countless purposes in everyday life, also to meet the demands in two world wars.

This great Utah Copper enterprise, was turned down by the Guggenheims, John Hays Hammond, Marcus Daly, and other well established operators of copper mines. Articles were published in Engineering journals declaring the mining and treating of copper ores of the grade and character of this deposit could not possibly be done at a profit. In fact Mr. Jackling was made the object of much criticism and even ridicule and antagonism. The antagonism was by Enos Wall, original owner of the Wall group containing the Utah Copper mine and the largest individual stockholder at that time, of the Utah Copper Company. For quite a period in the early development of the Utah Copper enterprise, Mr. Wall published a mining paper in Salt Lake City severely criticizing practically everything Mr. Jackling and the Utah Copper Company had done. Mr. Wall was a practical operator with great vision and some mechanical genius, but lacked the technical knowledge, the capacity for organization and the great administrative ability of Jackling. Such criticism not supported by facts resulted in wide spread advertisement of the achievements of the Utah Copper Company which was attracting considerable attention throughout the mining world resulting in investigations by men prominent in the copper industry and finance, only to find that Jackling's plans were sound and feasible.

In many respects the 1903 operations of the Utah Copper

Company were an experiment preliminary to Jackling's plans to carry out his ideas on a grand scale. In 1904, the Guggenheim engineers, Chester Beatty, Sealey Mudd and Henry Krumb returned to the scene and after a few months of intensive mine developments as drifts, crosscuts, winzes and diamond drilling, the Guggenheim brothers, fully satisfied with the results and the fulfillment of Jackling's optimistic representations, furnished sufficient capital for both the development of the mine and the erection of a large concentrator located at Magna Utah about fifteen miles northerly from the mine, which location afforded available water and large tailings space.

Excavation preparatory for the open pit mining was started in 1905 from the west side of the canyon. In the course of a few months the overburden of oxidized copper ores, a type of ore which could not be profitably treated in the concentrator was removed and deposited in nearby gulches intended for its removal and treatment by a leaching process. For the transportation of the increasing tonnage of available sulphide ore from pit mining, the D&RG railroad company built a standard gauge branch the "Highline" to the Utah Copper Pit, commencing service in June 1907, when the new concentrator at Magna was ready for operation. By the summer of 1908 the Magna concentrator was treating a total of 6000 tons per 24 hours, about 3000 tons from each of the underground and pit operations.

Complying with Court Decree copper smelting was discontinued in Salt Lake Valley December 31, 1907. However, before the closing down of the three going copper smelters in Salt Lake Valley, preparation for their replacement had been made by new and more modern plants, the Garfield Smelter of the American Smelting and Refining Company erected near the south shores of Great Salt Lake and the Tooele plant of the International Smelting and Refining Company erected at the mouth of Pine Canyon overlooking Tooele Valley. The Garfield Smelter started operations in 1906, principally for the reduction of Utah Copper Concentrates but also custom ores. The Tooele Smelter got into operation in 1911, principally for the reduction of Highland Boy ores but also custom ores, and was equipped for the smelting of both copper sulfides and lead-silver ores.

From the inception of the Utah Copper enterprise in 1903, the production steadily increased to a normal of 70,000 tons per 24 hours and during World War II attained a peak of approximately 110,000 tons. At the commencement of the Pit it was estimated that for each tone of ore produced there would be one ton of overburden removed and disposed of.

To realize the full possibilities of its holdings, the Utah Copper Company required the addition of the properties of the Boston Consolidated Mining Company, the Payroll group, the Gould group, the Starless group, the upper portion of the Ohio Copper Mining Company and Bench Rights on the United States Smelting Refining Company's U.S. and Montana Bingham mines in Bingham Canyon. In large part these properties hold portions of the disseminated copper deposit occurring in the large porphyry stock and the marginal quartzite, but the copper content is appreciably less than that in the Wall group. However, the advances made by the Utah Copper Company in the important items that go to make up the cost of production has made such ores profitable and will increase the life of this enterprise many years.

With the expansion of its holdings and the attainment at depth on the orebody it has resulted that to maintain a safe slope plans for its benches, calculated at 35 degrees from the horizontal, approximately one and one half tons of waste rock and overburden will be required to be moved and disposed of for one ton of ore produced. For the disposal of this overburden of oxidized copper ores and waste rock and the railroad easements for transporting them, the Utah Copper Company has been required to purchase a vast acreage for such surface rights in Bingham. The early purchases were made in the areas adjoining the pit and as needed the surface in practically every gulch, except Carr Fork, connected with Bingham Canyon has been acquired.

The Boston Consolidated property comprised a large acreage extending from the West boundary of the Utah Copper up the west slope of Bingham Canyon to include the top of the ridge that forms the south side of Muddy Gulch in the upper Carr Fork area. Extensive development of the porphyry copper monzonite stock through the Copper Center Tunnel, with its portal in Copper Center Gulch in upper Bingham Canyon was carried on in 1904 under Samuel Newhouse to determine the practicability of working the porphyry on a large scale for copper. Detailed sampling and thorough milling tests were carried on approximately 200,000 tons of ore broken in the development work. The average grade was appreciably lower than that of the Utah Copper mine production at that time. The mill tests were conducted by Mr. _____ Bettles and based upon the results obtained, a concentrator was erected in 1908 on a large tract of ground adjoining the Magna plant of the Utah Copper. Designated as the Arthur plant it differed from the Magna plant in that the fine crushing was done by Nissen stamps each with individual mortars, while in the Magna plant 7 foot chilean mills were used. For the coarse crushing and concentration of the freed minerals there was practically no difference in the kind of equipment used.

Preparations immediately got underway for a steam shovel operation commencing at the top of the ridge directly above the open pit of Utah Copper Company. The Arthur plant was originally designed to house ___ units and was equipped a unit at a time and upon completion of each unit it was put into production. The ore produced in the steam shovel operations carried considerable iron pyrite so closely associated with the copper minerals that the concentrates produced at the mill were penalized by the smelter on account of their low copper content. This resulted in piling up the concentrates and experimental work toward solving their reduction other than the conventional method used at the Garfield smelter which had contract for the concentrates.

Samuel Newhouse at the helm for the Boston Consolidated enterprise was a very colorful character, experienced in mining, with a great capacity for work and raising capital but the low price then prevailing for copper together with the metallurgical difficulties encountered in the reduction of such low grade ore, greatly hampered the completion of the concentrator and profitable operation. However, the men in charge of conducting this venture had abiding faith in the potentialities of the property and knew its value which in the merger with the Utah Copper their knowledge was used to good advantage on behalf of the stockholders of this company.

The large scale underground copper sulphide mining in Bingham inaugurated in 1896 had by 1915 pretty well exhausted the enriched secondary copper ores and development had reached, in most mines, the primary horizon wherein the orebodies persisted at depth but lower grade and highly pyritic. However from the inception of the Utah Copper enterprise in 1903 and its steadily increased production of copper concentrates which were reduced at the Garfield smelter, there developed an increasing demand for fluxing ores. During the period of gravity concentration of Utah Copper ores 1903 to 1918, the concentrates ran relatively high in silica, which at the smelter required iron fluxing ores for economical reduction to copper matte and thereby developed a demand for the primary pyritic ores in Bingham which carried small amounts of copper, gold and silver, with an excess of iron over silica. With the use of flotation in the Utah Copper mills the grade of concentrates are substantially higher in copper and carry a much lower silica content than with gravity concentration and therefore their value as flux practically ended. There followed a marked curtailment in the production of copper pyritic sulfides.

Metal mining in Bingham had undergone two periods of transition by the end of World War I. The first period was the prospecting of surface outcrops which were plentiful and very conspicuous over a vast area in Bingham, and their subsequent near surface development largely by individual claim owners or groups of miners. The oxidized gold-silver lead ores were the objects of production but at the time of the earliest discoveries the art of smelting lead ore in blast furnaces was unknown in this country. However, in 1873, two of Utah's pioneer smelters, the Sheridan Hill and the Galena, were built and in general followed present day blast furnace practice, but in the succeeding years there have been many innovations and improvements in the art. Also, during this period considerable attention was given to the exploitation of the oxidized gold ores in the limestones and with the introduction of the cyanide process a number of mills were erected at the sites of the various discoveries. These ventures had varying financial success. However as depth was attained these oxidized gold ores gave way to large and rich secondary copper sulphide orebodies, and their discovery along with the Utah Copper venture in the experiment of mining the immense deposit of disseminated copper in the Bingham monzonite porphyry stock attracted outside capital. At about the turn of the century there was the consolidation of small groups of claims followed by extensive development programs. The copper sulphide developments proved highly successful and the Utah Copper experiment came up to their most optimistic expectations, all of which gave rise to a second period of mining in Bingham.

The second period was the advent of copper smelters and the mining of the large copper sulphide orebodies in limestone along with the expansion of the great Utah Copper enterprise by the consolidation of adjoining properties, the transformation from underground mining to open-pit, the construction of larger concentrators and the improvement in transportation by the building of its own railroad, the Bingham and Garfield. This railroad not only hauled the ever increasing tonnage of Utah Copper ore to its mills but served all the Bingham Canyon and Carr Fork areas and resulted in the abandonment of the aerial bucket tramways, the Copper Belt (Shay Engine railroad) and the High Line branch of the D&RG railway system.

At the close of World War I with the coming of peace the demand for copper stopped practically overnight and the United States Government was holding war-accumulated surplus of nearly one billion pounds. The American copper companies in the War years had doubled their capacity and were operating during the closing months of 1918 at this greatly accelerated rate. But in a few months the Utah Copper and other producers in Bingham, like other major producers, were compelled to reduce production even below prewar levels and finally in ____ the Utah Copper, unable to market its copper, closed down. Also the large scale underground copper mining inaugurated about 1900 had, with its accelerated rate of production during the four war years pretty well exhausted the enriched secondary copper sulphide ores and developments had reached in most mines, the horizon of primary ores where the orebodies continued at depth but were lower in grade and highly pyritic. Therefore Bingham which had risen to its high eminence in the mining and smelting world was at the close of World War I faced with a serious situation.

The third period, that is after World War I, had a gloomy beginning. It was obvious in the copper industry that new demand for copper on a grand scale would have to be developed to enable the industry to avoid long periods of expensive shut-downs and drastic readjustment. Characteristic of the American know-how and independent enterprise, the major companies promptly formed Copper and Brass Research Associations, designed to discover new uses for brass and copper and carry on extensive campaigns to advertise their many advantages and uses. The copper companies also organized the Copper Export Association and pooled nearly one half billion pounds of copper to be sold only to foreign markets. With the revival of general American industry and business in 1922 the copper industry and especially the Utah Copper with the advent of selective flotation were headed for still greater achievements. During the second period of mining developments on the silver-lead deposits had progressed to greater depths and, although continuity of sulphide ores existed there was a gradual increase of zinc but with the attendant increase in costs of deep mining in the way of shafts with their large equipment and other facilities and a water problem combined with no pay for the zinc content but a penalty in the direct smelting of such ores, their production was in general prohibitive. However, a solution was found in the development of selective flotation, which provided for the separation of lead and zinc into two kinds of concentrates for smelting into their respective metals.

During the second period the USCo in conjunction with its lead smelter at Midvale had operated a gravity concentrator on its lead ores. Also Huff electrostatic separators were installed to recover a zinc concentrate from a zinc-iron middling produced on the tables in the gravity concentrator. After considerable experimentation and testing of US mine lead-zinc ores in a pilot mill, formerly a unit of the company's gravity concentrator, a flotation concentrator was constructed at Midvale and put into operation in February 1926, supplanting the gravity concentrator and Huff plant.

Experiments with flotation on Utah Copper ores were started in 1914 and continued with partial replacements of the gravity method of concentration up to 1926 when the Utah Copper mills at Magna and Arthur had been completely converted over to flotation, which produced a copper concentrate substantially higher in copper and with an excess of iron over silica. This change in the grade and character of the concentrate by flotation brought about changes for its reduction into slab copper at the Garfield smelter. For the reduction of the Utah Copper concentrate with its excess of silica by the gravity method there existed a demand for low grade copper pyritic ores from Bingham but with the flotation concentrate such demand was reduced to only a nominal amount and then the demand turned to siliceous ores, preferably those containing appreciable amounts of copper, gold and silver to flux off the excess iron in the flotation concentrate. Again, the varied nature and extent of mineralization in Bingham was demonstrated and the demand for this character of flux ore met ready response by the mines, especially by those of the US and Bingham Mines companies. This commenced a revival of mine operations in the outcrops and near surface workings for the removal of the low grade ores left as unprofitable in early days and also the removal of old mine dumps and mill tailings accumulated from early day operations. Such revival of operation was carried on very successfully under a lessee system.

The third period found a solution of many of the problems facing both the copper and lead-zinc mining in Bingham in the development of selective flotation. Its application to Utah Copper ores resulted in substantial higher recoveries of the copper and precious metals, lower smelting costs per ton of crude resulting from substantial higher grade concentrates and additional revenue from the molybdenite present in the ore by the additions to the mills of a process developed after years of experimenting and research for the recovery of the mineral. At the pit large expenditures were made in the electrification program for loading both ore, overburden and waste rock and for its transportation to the assembly yard or dumps. By supplanting the steam operated equipment with electrically operated and of much large capacity there was reflected a marked increase in tons of production per manshift. These innovations are of incalculable importance in that they made possible a slight margin of profit, mining of sulphide copper ores carrying as low as 9 pounds of copper per ton in conjunction with higher grade ores and to maintain an average mill head of 18 pounds of copper per ton, as compared to 50 pounds of copper per ton of ore as millheads, which was declared as impossible to mine and treat at a profit by many reputable mining men and mining publications when Jackling started the experiment to carry out his ideas. Such an achievement has made possible an enormous expansion of the mining laterally and at depth, by the open-pit system and greatly increased the potentialities of this great disseminated deposit of copper occurring in the monzonite porphyry and the marginal quartzite. To realize the full possibilities of its holdings, the Utah Copper Company required the addition of the properties of the Starless Mining Company, the Ohio Copper from surface down to an elevation of approximately 6000 feet sea-level datum, the Bingham Coalition, a consolidation of a number of small groups of claims mined near surface in early days and located on the west slope of Bingham Canyon and extending from the south slope of Markham Gulch northerly to Dry Gulch at the lower end of Bingham Canyon at the site of Utah Copper experimental mill, the Steve Hays properties located in Bingham Canyon, Dixon Gulch and on the south slope of Carr Fork and also large acreages for bench rights, railroad easements, tunnel easements and dump rights at locations in close proximity to the pit and of adequate capacity for overburden and waste disposal.

Also in the Magna and Arthur areas additional land was acquired and dams constructed to store the mill tailings.

To facilitate the transportation of ore, overburden and waste broken in the pit operation a 6040 railroad tunnel 24 feet high and 18 feet wide was driven southerly 4200 feet in length to a connection with open pit at a bench elevation of 6040 feet sea level datum. The portal of the tunnel is located on the east slope of Bingham Canyon about 50 feet above its floor and ____ feet south of the Denver & Rio Grande depot. The tunnel is supported by 6 inch and 8 inch steel I beam sets and concreted from the portal for _____ feet at which point it intersects the planned ultimate south limit of the pit. The remaining ____ feet of the tunnel is heavily timbered and of course this portion will be progressively destroyed as the pit gains depth and is expanded.

The ore is transported from the pit through this tunnel and continues at surface along the east slope of Bingham Canyon to its mouth where the trains are switched onto the tracks of a large assembly yard at Copperton ready to be hauled to the Magna and Arthur mills.

A second transportation tunnel the 5840 is under construction to make connection with a downward extension of the pit at a bench elevation of 5840 feet sea level datum. It is similar in dimensions and type of construction as the 6040 tunnel and will be 7200 feet in length. Its portal is located _____ feet northerly or down canyon from the portal of the 6040 tunnel and at the east side of the canyon about 25 feet above its floor.

At the turn of the century great changes were being made in transportation both underground and surface and notably in Bingham as related to the Utah Copper operation.

In 1873 a narrow gauge railroad was constructed from Bingham Junction (now Midvale) into the lower part of Bingham Canyon and in 1900 the Denver & Rio Grande replaced the narrow gauge with standard gauge. Aerial bucket tramways were constructed to extend from the US Mine and Carr Fork mines--all at high elevations--down to terminal loading stations at the end of the Denver & Rio Grande railroad in Bingham. These aerial tramways in large part replaced wagon hauling and mule drawn surface trams of earlier days. In 1902 the Copper Belt standard gauge railroad was constructed from the end of the Denver & Rio Grande railroad to upper Bingham, on a branch crossing the canyon over the Wall group which became the original Utah Copper property, then up the southeast slope of Carr Fork. The other branch crossed the canyon over the U.S. property near Galena Gulch then up Copper Center Gulch to the Commercial Mine. This railroad with extremely sharp curves and steep grades was limited in its operation to a train capacity of 150 tons in winter and 200 tons in summer drawn by the Shay type of geared steam engine. When the Utah Copper Company got into underground production branch tracks of this Copper Belt were extended to the mine ore-bins. The loaded cars were transferred from the Copper Belt to the D&RG railroad and then delivered to the experimental mill. In June 1907 the "Highline" a standard gauge branch of the D&RG system was completed to serve the open pit operation of the Utah Copper and the operations both pit and underground of the Boston Consolidated. The train capacity was 1300 tons drawn by the Mallet type of engine down the east slope of Bingham Canyon and gradually winding around the east slope of the Oquirrh range to Welby--a new station on the Bingham main line--thence to the Magna and Arthur plants. On September 11, 1911 [1914?] service was started by the Bingham and Garfield, a standard gauge railroad (Utah Copper owned) and common carrier for the Bingham district with a train capacity of 4500 tons, drawn by the Big Mallet type of steam engine. This railroad by 1915 replaced the aerial tramways, and the Copper Belt railroad and by 1918 the "Highline" of the D&RG system. The upper terminus of the Bingham and Garfield railroad was located above the center of the town of Bingham on the west slope of the main canyon between Carr Fork and Dixon Gulch, at elevation ____ which corresponds to ____ level of the pit operations. At this terminus a large assembly yard was constructed and from here railroad service was provided shippers in the upper Bingham and Carr Fork areas by the transportation facilities of Utah Copper over various pit levels. The railroad extended from its Bingham terminus down canyon along the west slope in a general northeasterly direction to the mouth of the canyon then turned to a general north-westerly direction, skirting the easterly slope of the Oquirrh range to the Magna and Arthur plants, approximately 18 miles long and _____ miles shorter than the Highline of the D&RG system.

The construction of the Bingham and Garfield railroad especially in the Bingham Canyon area involved great engineering difficulties. Here is a precipitous canyon wall of solid rock with the main part of the town of extremely crowded buildings and homes lying directly below the projected line. Also, the wall of the canyon is cut by deep gulches requiring high steel bridges (erected upon high concrete footings which provides for traffic underneath), across Carr Fork, Markham, Freeman and Dry gulches. Connecting in large part with these bridges are a series of tunnels, concrete supported and driven through the ridges that extend down the slope between these gulches.

The construction with its great capital expenditure of the Bingham and Garfield railroad is another example of Mr. Jackling's boldness, both of conception and execution at a time of low copper prices and when the D&RG top officials, dubious of the success of Mr. Jackling's expansion program, failed to expand its haulage facilities to transport the increasing production from mine to mills.

The Bingham and Garfield railroad served the underground mines in Bingham as a common carrier and as haulage for the Utah Copper pit mine for 37 years, when it was replaced on May 1, 1948 by the Kennecott industrial electrified railroad with each train of 7000 tons capacity. The ore mined in the pit is transported through tunnels, then down the east slope of the canyon to a large assembly yard at the south side of Copperton--a formerly Kennecott owned townsite--where the trains are made up to be hauled over the new industrial railroad to the mills at Magna and Arthur. Also, tracks connect the Bingham & Garfield assembly yard with the Copperton assembly yard to facilitate transportation of ore mined at the higher levels on the west side of the pit. Since the abandonment of the Bingham and Garfield railroad as a common carrier Kennecott transports the USCo's ores loaded into D&RG cars at various bench levels of the pit, also at the Niagara tunnel level, and delivers them to the D&RG at an assembly yard on the D&RG Bingham branch at the mouth of Bingham Canyon. Also Kennecott receives the empty D&RG ore cars and all mine supplies for USCo at the D&RG assembly yard at the mouth of the canyon and transports them to such places as are designated for the use and convenience of the USCo in its mining operation in Bingham Canyon.

During the 37 year period of the Bingham and Garfield railroad the Bingham district underwent many changes in a series of progressive advancements effecting both open pit and underground mining. These changes have resulted in reducing the companies to but three now owning mining property and carrying on mining in that part of that Bingham district which is tributary to Bingham Canyon and the various gulches connected thereto.

The Utah Copper property now embraces 2880 acres of mining ground contiguous to its pit operation which with agreements for bench rights obtained from the USCo will permit Kennecott to mine its immense copper deposit by the open-pit system to the economic limits of this system. In addition to the merger with the Boston Consolidated and acquisitions of the Guld, Payroll, Starless and upper portion of the Ohio Copper all forming the pit, Kennecott now owns practically all the mining ground extending down canyon from Carr Fork to Dry Gulch on the west slope of Bingham Canyon and extending up to Cottonwood Gulch in Carr Fork. This latter area has in former years been productive of fissure ores and has possibilities from underground mining but it was acquired by Utah Copper primarily and being used for the disposal of its waste and overburden.

Kennecott's progressive advances and improvements in its transportation and haulage systems; the arteries through which flow the ore from mine to mills, are symbols of a well rounded program in every department of integrating the company operation in every phase of the industry from mine to market.

Over the years of pit mining the Utah Copper is required to first remove the oxidized portion of the orebody to make available the sulphide minerals, which are amenable to economic extraction at the mills. This oxidized portion extends from surface to variable depths and on the original holding--Wall Group--it was calculated that for each ton of sulphide ore shipped there would be one ton of overburden removed. However with the merger and acquisitions of adjoining ground that carries lower copper content per ton along with profitable success in the mining of a much lower grade of ore has resulted in an expansion of the pit into large blocks of ground sparsely mineralized. But to realize the full possibilities and provide for safe and economic mining at depth it is necessary to mine and dispose of these blocks of ground containing less than approximately 8 pounds of copper per ton. This has resulted in a gradual increase in the proportion of material sent to the dumps which is now approximately one and one-half tons to one ton of ore milled. All the material thus deposited in the various gulches and on the slopes of Bingham are carefully sampled and the tonnage and grade recorded for a respective location. These materials are in most part deposited upon the surface that Kennecott has purchased perpetual easements from neighboring mine owners. In practically all these agreements covering perpetual easements for railroads and dumps, Utah Copper Company with its characteristic diligence and foresightedness stipulated that the Copper Company owned such dumps with the right of their removal. During World War I an experimental leaching plant was constructed near Magna for the treatment of the Utah Copper oxidized overburden but with the war over and a growing surplus of copper the removal of this overburden and subsequent leaching was never carried to an ultimate success.

Over the years of mining in Bingham old mine dumps have been made near the bottom of the gulches and such gulches have since been filled with oxidized overburden and sparsely mineralized waste rock from the Utah Copper pit. In the spring of 1919 George Robbe, chemist for the Montana Bingham Consolidated Company observed a blue water percolating through the old mine dump at the bottom of McGuire Gulch and by analysis found it carried approximately thirty pounds of copper per one thousand gallons of water. Also he determined that the copper could be recovered as a precipitate of copper by introducing tin cans into the water. This method of recovering copper had been widely used in the Butte, Montana area but hadn't been economically applied to Bingham waters. Mr. Robbe then formed a partnership with Tom Billings to investigate the possibilities of the copper laden waters escaping and finally lost in the Jordan River. It was learned that in early days the water used for culinary purposes by the residents had its source from springs in various gulches. And one such spring was in McGuires Gulch. The McGuires, early settlers in Bingham had acquired ground in Bingham Canyon at the mouth of the gulch, which cut the eastern slope of the canyon and is quite narrow at the bottom, but gradually widens out toward the top of the ridge forming a basin nearly one half mile wide. The McGuires laid a pipeline from the spring and conducted the water to residents in the immediate area, establishing a water right. This spring with the pipeline was used over a period of many years for supplying culinary water, but soon after the Utah Copper started dumping its oxidized copper overburden in this gulch above the spring there started, especially during the spring runoff with the melting of the snows, a gradual contamination of the spring water and resulted in that it was unfit for culinary use. The Utah Copper Company accepted the responsibility of the contamination of the McGuire spring and provided substitute facilities for the house of Mrs. McGuire by connecting them with the Bingham town water system. However, in the agreement between the Utah Copper Company and Mrs. McGuire it was stipulated that the Utah Copper Company owned the content of the water and Mrs. McGuire retained her right to the water for fire protection.

The partnership became aware of this situation and proceeded to get an option on Mrs. McGuire's water right and a lease on a royalty basis from the Utah Copper Company to recover the copper from the waters escaping from McGuire Gulch. And then drove a tunnel through the old Montana Bingham waste dump to bed rock in the bottom of the gulch. Here a concrete dam was constructed to collect the waters flowing down the gulch, before they scattered through the waste dump made at the portal of the Montana Bingham tunnel. At the portal of the tunnel a small precipitating plant was constructed on the old abandoned grade of the Copper Belt railroad and the waters were conducted to it. Experiments were made with scrap iron, tin cans--flattened out, and sponge iron for precipitating the copper out of the water. It was found that the scrap iron was not effective and the sponge iron impractical.

The flattened tin cans proved successful, but the supply was soon found to be limited, however tin can cuttings obtained from the Hewletts Canning Company in Salt Lake and a cannery in Kaysville, Utah, proved very satisfactory. The supply was also limited from these sources but an adequate supply of these tin cuttings which were detinned was found in California and is still being used as the precipitant of copper from the Bingham waters.

The success of this operation resulted in developing great activity toward the capture of the copper-laden waters escaping from the various gulches in Bingham, wherein the Utah Copper had disposed of their overburden. Also, the Utah Copper Company started a long range program to preserve its ownership of the copper being leached out of the dumps and to devise plans to intercept, collect and convey the waters for the precipitation of the copper; and made filings with the State Engineer's office upon every conceivable flow of water in Bingham.

The Montana Bingham Company drove a raise from a near surface tunnel in its Tiewaukee mine to surface at the bottom of Winamuck Gulch and intercepted the copper water flowing from Utah Copper Company's dumps. These waters were conveyed to a precipitating plant constructed on the Tiewaukee mine dump and after operating the plant quite successfully for about a year the Utah Copper Company condemned a prescribed area of ground in Winamuck Gulch for the purpose of driving a tunnel from said gulch to such place as would permit the interception of the copper waters above the Montana Bingham point of interception and convey them away for its use. Thereupon a court battle started involving the ownership of these waters. After a three day session of testimony and legal arguments in the District Court in Salt Lake, the Judge gave the Utah Copper Company immediate possession of the prescribed area with the right to drive a tunnel to a point underneath its dumps in Winamuck Gulch for the purpose of intercepting and collecting the waters percolating through its dumps, thus deciding the ownership of the copper-laden waters that percolate these dumps from melting snows and other natural precipitation. Inasmuch as these dumps were made by the Utah Copper Company upon the surface of property of the Montana Bingham under an agreement limited to the surface and specific uses for railroad and dumps there appeared room for a difference of opinions as to the ownership of the percolating waters that leached out the copper contained in the material that made up the dumps. However under the agreement respecting the dumps the Utah Copper specifically retained their ownership and the right to remove them.

The decision of the District Court in favor of Utah Copper Company was appealed to the Supreme Court of Utah and after a number of months review it practically confirmed the lower court and ruled that the Utah Copper rights to the surface under the agreement covering perpetual easements extended down to bed-rock lying underneath the surface soil.

During the period of review by the Supreme Court a hot contest was carried on by the two companies in the field. The Utah Copper Company extended its tunnel confined to the soil above bed rock but the Montana Bingham Company, by extending its mine workings kept ahead of the Utah Copper Company's workings and continued to intercept and collect the copper waters flowing down the bottom of the gulch. However, the two managements got together and had drawn up a stipulation agreement a record of the proceeds from sale of copper and expense of operations was kept and the net income credited to Utah Copper Company because of the decision rendered by the Supreme Court. The Montana Bingham Company requested a hearing of the case before the Federal Court but was refused by Judge Johnson, Federal Judge.

The ownership of the copper laden waters percolating from natural causes through the Utah Copper dumps and limiting the interception and collection of such waters underneath the dumps at and above bedrock were firmly established by law. The decision of this case was generally accepted by the property owners in Bingham who had sold its surface to Utah Copper Company for perpetual easements for railroads and dump rights, inasmuch as the agreements covering the respective sales were similar.

There was one notable exception, the agreement between the Utah Copper Company and the Ohio Copper Company. The Ohio Copper, which adjoined the Utah Copper on the east and southeast was mining its orebody using the block caving system. With this system as the mined ore is drawn from beneath the cap rock over the orebody the cap rock caves from surface and follows down upon top of the broken ore to be milled. This caving system developed huge holes at surface and the Utah Copper Company found it very desirable to build one of its tracks over the caved area for disposal of its overburden on surface available in the gulches below. So to establish a railroad grade it first had to fill in the huge holes produced from the Ohio's caving system and to maintain the track was currently filling the caves as the Ohio Company would draw the ore from below. Now in the agreement between the two companies covering this trackage the Utah Copper Company did not have the right of removal of the materials dumped by it into the caved area. For the maintenance of this trackage which was for a substantial period the Utah Copper Company dumped an immense tonnage of its overburden of oxidized copper ore into the caving area.

The Ohio Copper mine is connected to the Mascotte tunnel, 1000 feet vertically below surface, by a series of caved ground and mine workings, and the surface waters circulated freely through these caves and workings to the tunnel level where they were conveyed by a mine ditch to the portal at Lark, Utah. In the early nineteen twenties, the Ohio copper mine operations were closed down and a sampling of the percolating waters during a spring runoff showed an appreciable copper content so the Ohio management constructed a small experimental precipitating plant that was successful during a brief period of the spring runoff. The Ohio Management, encouraged by the results, investigated the Robbe-Billings partnership operation of treating copper waters in Bingham and then proceeded to implement the leaching by natural causes of the oxidized copper minerals in the broken cap rock and Utah Copper fills by spraying with water pumped from the creek in upper Bingham. This percolating water dissolved the soluble copper minerals and on reaching the Mascotte Tunnel carried a comparatively high copper content in solution. The records of the Ohio Copper mine operation plus those of the fills made by Utah Copper assured an immense tonnage of low-grade copper ore, susceptible to leaching.

The results of the experiments and the potentialities gave promise of an achievement quite unique and new in the copper industry. A large precipitating plant was constructed at a widened portion of the Mascotte Tunnel close to the bottom of the Ohio mine where the copper laden waters were collected to be conveyed to the plant. The problem of water supply to irrigate or spray the broken ore was solved by an arrangement with the Bingham Mines Company that was operating a lead-zinc mine and pumping into the Mascotte Tunnel from its workings below. This water was delivered to the Ohio Company and mixed with a portion of the tailing water of the precipitating plant then pumped through the Ohio incline shaft, of three compartments, to points on surface for spraying. The precipitating plant design was similar to the Robbe-Billings plant and larger. The detinned supply of can cuttings were shipped in 100 pound bales from California to Lark and there loaded into mine cars and hauled in the Mascotte Tunnel to the precipitating plant located about 12,000 feet from the portal. The copper precipitate or copper cement was pumped from the precipitating tanks into specially constructed mine cars, hauled through the tunnel to surface bins for loading into railroad cars on the Lark branch of the D&RG railway system and shipped to the Garfield smelter.

The Ohio leaching process was very profitable attained with relatively small capital expenditures but after a few years steady operation there was a gradual falling off in the copper content of the percolating waters collected at the tunnel level that threatened a continuation of the operation. Calculations of the probable amount of copper in the fills, and broken cap rock and ores showed that there should be considerable copper remaining susceptible to leaching. Sulfuric acid was then added to the spray water at surface to accelerate the leaching process and increase the copper content of the percolating water conveyed to the plant. This addition solved the problem temporarily but in the course of about two years it also developed ineffective and unprofitable forcing suspension of operations. In the course of a few years copper poured forth from the mine by the millions of pounds but is only a relatively small percentage of the actual copper content of the low grade ores subjected to this type of leaching.

On account of topography and structure the situation in Dixon Gulch with respect to these percolating copper waters is dissimilar to that found in practically all the other gulches. This gulch extends from Bingham Canyon as a steep narrow gorge cutting precipitous bluffs of solid rock on the west slope of the canyon and then widens out providing extensive dump space. The toe of the dumps made in the gulch by Utah Copper lies above this narrow gorge and here the bedded rock formation dips to the west, that is, into the hillside. The copper water, with its origin, undoubtedly in the dumps above, sunk in large part down the bedding fractures or cross fractures and then emerged in the narrow gorge below. On the assumption that such copper water belonged to Utah Copper the Robbe & Billings partnership included it under its lease from Utah Copper Company and constructed a concrete dam and collecting basin at the point of emergence. A filing for the appropriation of this water was made by Utah Copper but the point of emergence was on ground owned by the Stephen Hays Company. The copper water was conveyed to the Robbe & Billings precipitating plant in Bingham and treated there for a number of years without any interference. However, immediately after the Supreme Court decision which awarded these copper waters and a means of their collection and conveyance was solved, the Utah Copper Company constructed its own precipitating plant and storage shed for detinned iron can cuttings. This plant in general follows the general scheme developed in the Robbe & Billings plant but many times larger and equipped to save labor in the handling of material, slushing out the precipitates, their dehydration and loading into railroad cars.

The Supreme Court decision in awarding the copper waters derived in the Utah Copper dumps as related to the Winamuck Gulch, limited the Utah Copper Company to intercept and collect such waters to the ground underneath the dumps on and above bedrock. The point of emergence and collection of the copper waters on the Hays ground in Dixon Gulch did not appear to conform strictly with the law as pronounced. Consequently Utah Copper Company's right to the Dixon Gulch waters was hotly contested by the Hays Company in the Utah courts. In the end Utah Copper Company purchased practically all the Hays Company's property in Bingham Canyon and then settled the lawsuit.

On the completion of its precipitating plant at the mouth of Bingham Canyon in 1928 the Utah Copper Company proceeded to intercept, collect and convey all the copper waters originating from its disposal of overburden and waste material in the Bingham district, and terminated the Robbe & Billings lease on the McGuire and Dixon gulches which had been in force for nine years.

The process of recovering copper from the oxidized overburden produces millions of pounds of low cost copper per month. At first the waters percolating through the dumps were the result of rains and the melting snow in the spring of the year. The frost breaks about the first of April and from then the flow gradually increases to a peak about the middle of May. The volume of water from these natural causes gradually recedes to a low in January. These dumps act as a sort of sponge retarding floods and letting the water through to the bottom of their respective gulches the year round. However in recent years to increase production of copper the Company has augmented in some of the gulches this leaching process from natural cause by pumping water and sort of irrigating on top of the dumps, also added sulfuric acid.

In these Bingham gulches reposes many millions of tons of material containing copper in variable forms and amounts not susceptible to concentration, costing millions of dollars to remove and dispose of. Another achievement and contribution by Bingham of great importance to the copper industry has been this process for treating this oxidized overburden and broken cap rock in the Ohio mine profitably on a large scale with comparatively small capital expenditures.

With this process the Utah Copper has turned a large liability into a much larger asset and by its success in Utah the process is being used profitably on a large scale in New Mexico and Arizona.

The United States Smelting Refining and Mining Company was organized in 1906 to acquire the United States Mining Company, operating in Bingham, Tintic and California and to acquire other mining interests in Mexico and Nevada. The Company's first managing director Albert F. Holden educated in geology and with a number of years practical mining experience sensed that the life of a mining company depended upon not only the acquisition of mines in other parts of the world but to extend the exploration of its known orebodies and structures related thereto. Also to realize the potentialities of similar formations, structures and extensions of orebodies in a district, Mr. Holden was alert to acquire properties contiguous to the Companies operation in such district. This policy inaugurated by Mr. Holden has been carried out by the succeeding managements with marked success. A noteworthy example of such a policy is in the Bingham district, where along with intelligent exploration and the management's ability to develop improvements in all the phases of mining, beneficiation and smelting, the United States Company has operated continuously here during booms and depressions, except for brief periods of interruption during the strikes of 1912 and _____. With Utah standing close to the top of the list of states in the production of lead and zinc, the US Company from Bingham district, has for many years contributed more than half of the state's production along with substantial proportions of the output of gold and silver.

Indicative of the Company's expansion program in the Bingham district, the USSR&MCo at present owns 5673 acres of mineral ground and 2480 acres of non-mineral ground all contiguous with the exception of an isolated group comprising _____ acres in Butterfield Canyon as compared to 286 acres in 1899, when its predecessor, the United States Mining Company was organized.

In addition, the US Company has acquired long term leases with renewal from the Kennecott Corporation on the Armstrong property contiguous to the US Mine and tributary to its workings. The Armstrong mine comprises ____ acres of mineral ground located on the southeast slope of Carr Fork and extends from the east side of Muddy Gulch easterly. Under the terms of the lease, the mining is to be done from underground so as not to interfere with Kennecott's pit mining and certain blocks of the property above certain defined planes to surface are either excluded from the lease or modified so as to reserve to Kennecott all disseminated copper ore that are extensions to its orebody and permit the expansion of its pit operation. The operation of this lease is on a profit sharing basis, and such profit is determined by the following formula:

Also Kennecott had agreed to lease a vast portion of its ground located on the west slope of Bingham Canyon and extending north and northeasterly from the north side of Carr Fork down to Dry Gulch at the lower end of Bingham Canyon, comprising _____ acres of mineral ground. This ground is believed to hold good mineral possibilities especially in the regions of Carr Fork, Markham and Freeman gulches where in early days there was considerable activity in near-surface developments and mining which resulted in substantial productions of lead, zinc and copper ores and in some cases profitable operations. The money panic in the fall of 1907 followed by depressed market prices for metals resulted in the various small mines in this locality suspending work. According to the accepted information the mineralization in this area gives promise of persistence at depth which with intelligent exploration there appears a reasonable mining chance of success, especially with an exploration program planned by the USSR&MCo in its Tiewaukee, Winamuck, Dixon and Montana Bingham areas in Lower Bingham.

In most cases, especially Bingham, the reopening of mines after a suspension of operation is very expensive before production can be resumed and requires outside financing which is difficult to get by small mines. However, with the prevailing depressed market prices, the Utah Copper Company cleverly rounded up this whole area primarily for its surface for the disposal of its oxidized copper overburden and waste material. Consequently the gulches are now filled up so as to cover up practically all the old mine workings.

The terms and conditions to be embodied in this Lower Bingham lease will be quite similar to those in the Armstrong lease.

The US and Montana Bingham Companies have given Kennecott Corporation a lease covering the disseminated copper ores that might be removed by this corporation within the property lines of the US and Montana Bingham companies in the expansion of the Utah Copper pit into US and Montana Bingham ground necessary to realize the potentialities of its vast orebody by a safe pit system of mining. The operation of this lease is on a profit sharing basis and such profit is determined by the following formula:

[there was space provided for a formula to be added, but no formula]

An attitude of cooperation, that had for many years existed with the USCo and Kennecott in Bingham and founded upon the belief of the head men of each that they should work together and interchange that which benefits the other's operations, attained its greatest expression in the Top of the Hill Agreement and other Agreements dated July 23, 1948. In the respective leases cited above, each acknowledged the qualifications of the other in Kennecott pit mining and the US in underground mining.

In 1929[?] the USCo sold to Utah Copper a strip of its property reserving the mineral land comprising _____ acres running east and west and northeast-southwest along a common boundary of the two properties on the west slope of Bingham Canyon. In addition to surface easements Kennecott obtained bench rights on this strip in order to flatten out its slope plane in the expansion of the pit. In approaching the US property line Utah Copper had steepened up the slope plane and in _____ a large land slide on the southwesterly side of the pit caused considerable damage to the series of tracks on the benches and to some of the loading equipment. The slide was estimated to contain _____ tons of material which also had to be disposed of and a large portion came off the US property directly above.

Further expansion of the pit toward the south and west compelled Kennecott to request, in the spring of 1941, additional ground from the USCo in order to provide a safe slope plane and make available its orebody at depth. The USCo management upon platting the block of ground described in the request readily saw that a compliance would result in further congestion of its surface facilities at the portal of the Niagara Tunnel and endanger its operations. The USCo was convinced that there remained a long life of successful operation of the US mine and that in course of a few years Kennecott would require additional ground in the Niagara Tunnel area and Jordan area which would only result in Kennecott providing for the USCo another site from which it could conduct its US mine operation in order for Kennecott to fully realize the great potentialities of its orebody. As an alternative to granting the request of 1941, the USCo suggested to Kennecott that it give consideration to having the USCo move its operation from the Niagara Tunnel area as soon as is convenient instead of postponement which would inconvenience and hamper both of the operations.

By the fall of 1941 both companies had carried on investigations of different sites in the Bingham area as to their suitability from which to conduct the operation of the US mine. Also Kennecott had projected a long range program and had determined its ultimate requirements from the USCo and Montana Bingham Company, a subsidiary of the USCo, in the ways of bench rights, railroad and dump rights, collection of its copper laden waters both from natural and artificial causes and spraying or irrigating all its dumps presently or which may in the future be made upon USCo or Montana Bingham ground.

Confronted with the magnitude of Kennecott's requests to fulfill its ultimate requirements and make itself whole so far as the US and Montana Bingham companies, the USCo selected a site at Lark, Utah for the construction of substitute facilities, far removed from any of Kennecott's operations, present or future, for the portal of a new tunnel to be driven to connect with certain workings in the US mine and the Lark and St. Joe mines. The US management decided to have everything new--combined office and change house building, combined store house, machine shop, blacksmith shop, electrical shop, welding shop, repair shop and garage building, compressor plant, saw mill, heating plant, mancar storage house, sub-station, culinary water tank, ore dump trestles, railroad spurs, powder magazine, lumber yard, parking lot and roads.

Two separate 440 volt power lines have been constructed, each connects with one of two separate Utah Power Lines that run between the Power Company's substations in Bingham and Jordan Narrows and extend to the US substation at the portal of the new tunnel. By means of rotary switches the Power Company is enabled to deliver power from either the Grace, Idaho or Jordan Narrows in the event of a failure on one or the other line.

A large area was leveled off at the portal of the tunnel and all the above facilities are located as conveniently and advantageously as possible both with respect to each other as well as to the mine. The projection of the new tunnel to best serve ____ the US, Lark and St. Joe mines, together with new shafts for their respective functions, lowering ore to the new tunnel level, ventilation and repairs of a main underground hoist--were carefully designed by the US mining department and the US engineering department has carefully designed the facilities both at surface and underground. The engineering staff had the help and approval of Kennecott engineers and large equipment companies supplied a fund of data and technical information relating to the various phases of the enterprise. Its conception and execution is a triumph of patient and careful planning based upon technical skill and many years of operating experience, cooperation and hard work.

During the period of expansion of the Utah Copper open pit the USCo has expanded its holdings and operations in the Bingham district.

Commencing with 286 acres as a nucleus in 1899, when the United States Mining Company was organized it has acquired the following:


Year Acquired



Last Chance Mine



Muddy Gulch




Old Jordan

Red Rover



Old Jordan

New York Bingham



Old Jordan

Bingham Mines Co.

1929 Pat. Lode




Old Jordan

Lower Bingham

Bingham Mines Co.

1929 Pat Millsite



Bingham Mines Co.

1929 Non Mineral



Bingham Mines Co.

1929 Mineral Loc



Marvel Group




Castro Group



Head of Castro Gulch

Upper Bingham from

Butterfield Canyon




Saints Rest Gulch

from Butterfield Canyon

Bingham Orleans



Saints Rest Gulch

from Butterfield Canyon





Yosemite Gulch

Tom Moore Group



Between Lark and

Bingham Canyon

Silver Gauntlet




Copper Gulch

Maud & Marian



Head of Winamuck Gulch

from Bingham Gulch

Midas Group



Between Lark and

Bingham Canyon in

Midas Gulch





Bingham Bemis



Southeast Slope of

Bingham Canyon near

its mouth

You See



Cowboy Group



Head of Castro Gulch

from Butterfield Canyon

Daylight &



Daylight Extension

Lead Silver Mines





Keystone & Congor


Green Group



Head of Winamuck Gulch

from Bingham Canyon

Osceola Group



Butterfield Canyon

Osceola Gulch

Fox Group



Lark-Congor Gulch

Bothwell Inv. Co.



Lark-Keystone Gulch

Keystone Extension




Mining Co.


Kennecott Corp.

1937 Mineral




Alwin-2/3 interest



Lower Bingham

Bingham Lead Co.

1945 Mineral


Lark-Lower end of


Yosemite Gulch

Bingham Lead Co.

1945 Non Mineral





Lark-Lower end of

Yosemite Gulch



Lark-Lower end of

Yosemite Gulch

Surface Tracts



Lark-Between Copper

& Yosemite Gulches

Niagara Mining Co.



Upper Bingham between

Galena & Copper Center


McGuire & Co's



Bottom of Bingham

Placer 1/5 interest

Canyon between Dixon

and Freeman Gulches

Montana Bingham



Lower Bingham and Lark

Con. Mng. Co.

between Keystone &

Copper Gulches

Bingham Metals Co.



Carr Fork-Muddy Gulch




Lark-Yosemite Gulch

Ohio Copper Co.

1951 mineral


Upper Bingham

Ohio Copper Co.

1951 surface



United Bingham



Lark between Midas &

Copper Co.

Keystone gulches

Bingham Congor



Lark-Upper Midas &

Copper Co.

Congor gulches

In January 1906, when the United States Smelting Refining and Mining Company was organized, its holdings in the Bingham district, comprising _____ acres of mineral ground formed a contiguous group of mining claims in upper Bingham Canyon extending in a general southwesterly direction from east to west approximately two miles in length and one-half mile wide. The original recorded discovery of ore in the district was upon the Jordan claim and today after 89 years of steady development and mining this group has proved to be the most intensely and richly mineralized in the district. At the time of the organization mining had been confined to near surface operations by a series of tunnels at successive lower elevations with their portals in Galena Gulch and Bear Gulch, also the Galena Shaft down approximately 400 feet from surface.

By 1913 the Jordan shaft had been sunk from surface ____ feet to a level corresponding to the Niagara tunnel level (originally called the Franklin Tunnel) with its portal on the west slope of upper Bingham Canyon. And with levels at intervals of ____ feet extended from the shaft the Jordan and Commercial limestones were found to terminate on the Roll fault, short distances above this tunnel level, however, the many fissures persisted in depth and their downward development disclosed the underlying series of intercalated limestone members of the district which in this mine are designated as the Alphabetical Series - "A" - "B" - "C" - "D" - "E" - and "F", with the stratigraphical position of "A" at the top of the series and the others in their respective order down to "F" at the bottom. The apparent termination of the Jordan and Commercial limestones with their immense replacement deposits produced a general gloom and predictions that the Bingham district was a shallow camp. But the different fissures which were exploited from the surface with their substantial contributions of metallic wealth showed persistence to depth in the different rock formations. So with renewed optimism and to fully realize the possibilities of the limestones and fissure systems of the Company, acquired the following adjoining properties: Last Chance Mine in 1913, Story Mine in 1915, and the Kempton, Red Rover, and New York Bingham in 1925, totalling 213.084 acres all contiguous to its original holdings which tended to round out the boundaries. These properties hold extensions of the fissures and limestones productive in the US mine and with the possible exception of the Red Rover have produced substantial tonnages of ore from near surface workings but increased costs attributed to the vicissitudes of deep mining operations on a small scale, lawsuits involving the Red Rover and Kempton, and depressed metal prices had resulted in the respective mines closing down except for small leasing operations. The complexity of the structure, and with the orebodies soft, the problem of timbering is a serious one, the U.S. Mine requiring about _____ feet of timber, board measure, for every ton of ore extracted, and when a mine in the Bingham district is closed down its workings deteriorate so rapidly without constant and expensive maintenance that within a few months they become inaccessible. To reopen one of these small mines that has been closed for relatively short periods, requires a considerable outlay of capital for labor, supplies and equipment which in most cases cannot be justified. However the property might possess considerable intrinsic value to its neighbor operating on a large scale, because the operation of such small mine consolidated with a larger scale operation reduces in a large degree not only the capital outlay for facilities but most of the indirect costs and thereby is brought into profitable production.

In 1914 the USCo prepared to move its Jordan Shaft operation down to the present Niagara Tunnel site by enlarging the tunnel from its portal for a distance of _______ feet; thence extended it to the bottom of the Jordan Shaft and other workings of the Jordan and Galena mines, also the Evans crosscut started from a point in the tunnel ______ feet from the portal was driven to develop the downward continuation of the Montana orebody in the region of the Giant Chief fault. Loading trestles were constructed near the portal to accommodate cars and an arrangement was made between the Utah Copper Company and the USCo for the hauling of Bingham and Garfield empty cars by Utah Copper from its Main assembly yard, located above the junction of Carr Fork with Bingham Canyon, to the loading trestle, also the hauling of supplies to a spur track, convenient to the portal of the tunnel. This arrangement also included the hauling of the loaded ores to be delivered to the Bingham and Garfield Railroad, a common carrier, and the disposal of US mine waste by Utah Copper Company. This move of the US mine operations to the Niagara Tunnel resulted in the abandonment of the USCo aerial tramway which extended from the Galena and Old Jordan sites to the D&RG railroad in lower Bingham; also the complete abandonment of Copper Belt railroad tracks. Up to this time the Copper Belt railroad served the USCo in the delivery of supplies, principally coal to the US compressor plant located in Upper Bingham Canyon just below the portal of the Niagara Tunnel and timber to the USCo saw mill located at the junction of Galena Gulch with Upper Bingham Canyon.

During the period of 1909 to 1916 the USCo and its subsidiary, the Niagara Mining Company, granted 29 surface tracts of land located in Bingham Canyon, on the north slope of Copper Center Gulch, and the south slope of Galena Gulch, for the extension of Utah Copper tracks A to Z all inclusive, also for dump rights upon the above cited slopes for the disposal of its overburden.

By the early nineteen twenties developments on and above the Niagara Tunnel also for 200 feet below from a new shaft, the Niagara No. 1 had been very successful, especially in the Old Jordan and Galena areas and the Last Chance group. Under Downey Muir's leadership a development program at depth was launched in the sinking of a new shaft, the Niagara No. 2 to replace the No. 1 at a more favorable location. At the portal of the Niagara Tunnel new facilities, machine, blacksmith, drill sharpening and electrical shops and hotel were constructed. The hotel of brick was erected at the level of Bingham Canyon, three stories with full basement, including mess hall, card and reading rooms, modern equipped kitchen, accommodations for hotel help and ___ rooms for miners.

This program of extensive exploration and development work has carried the mine down thirty-two hundred feet in the Niagara No. 2, three compartment shaft below the Niagara Tunnel or _______ feet from surface, and attained the greatest depth in the Bingham district. Levels at 200 foot intervals have been driven from the shaft and disclose the orebodies persisting to still greater depth occurring on the fissure systems and related to the Alphabetical limestones, the most important of which are the "B" and "D". Their productiveness are comparable to that in the upper portions of the mine in the Jordan and Commercial limestones.

The US mine is in the most richly and intensely mineralized sections of the district and after 89 years of mining operations mining still is being carried on at surface and practically every elevation below, to a vertical depth of ______ feet. In recent years the geological department has carefully observed every feature exposed at surface and available in underground workings. The geology is mapped and a study made currently with the progress of the mining and exploration work with special reference to any relationship such geological features may have to known orebodies and to guide the prospecting for new orebodies. All types of exploration and development are so planned and timed as to integrate them with the mining of the ore and other phases of the operation to attain overall economy. Due to the complexities of the structure and mineralization in heavy ground, maintenance is costly and it is not practical to block out ore reserves in advance of their extraction.

In the early twenties there was a revival of interest in the Bingham District by the successful flotation of lead-zinc sulphide ores mined in the district along with the USCo's disclosures of its orebodies persisting in depth into the alphabetical limestones and the very promising ore developments at depth in the Lark mine of the Bingham Mines Company. Special interest was shown by the American Smelting & Refining Company and the International Smelting and Refining Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Anaconda Copper Company.

The AS&RCo did not own or operate any mines in the district, but was dependent upon custom ores for its Murray lead smelter and Garfield Smelter, and for many years contracted the smelting of the Utah Apex Company's concentrates and ores, the Bingham Mines Company's ores, the Montana Bingham ores, the Ohio Copper Company's concentrate and precipitates and other occasional shipments by lessees operating in a few of the remaining productive small mines in the Bingham district. The Utah Copper Company by its acquisition of the Boston Consolidated property got the old Stewart, Phoenix, Bulldozer, Peabody, Edison, Ingersoll, Chicago Fire, Venus, Aetna B., the Jubilee and the Copper Center groups, comprising 51 mining claims, covering 350 acres of contiguous ground and extending from Muddy Gulch up its east slope, over the ridge; thence northeasterly down Copper Center Gulch to upper Bingham Canyon. All these old mines, except the Copper Center group, are located on a segment of the Commercial limestone and were developed in early days by the following tunnels driven from Muddy Gulch: Phoenix, Bulldozer, Campbell, Edison, Peabody, Ingersoll, and Armstrong the lowest. The area is characterized by quartzite, and includes segments of limestone which dip westward and are cut by faults, dikes, or dike sills, which has developed a very complex structure. Based upon some successful leasing operations here in the early twenties the Utah Copper Company made an unsuccessful attempt to carry on an underground mining operation. In large part there exists intercompany directorship of the American Smelting and Utah Copper companies, and the Boston Consolidated sulphide underground mine, commonly known as the Armstrong was turned over to the AS&R under a long term lease, whereupon the AS&R acting upon the disclosures of orebodies at depth in the alphabetical limestones in the US mine sunk the Armstrong, a 3 compartment shaft below the Armstrong tunnel to a 1500 foot level. Extensive lateral work, principally at this low level, was conducted from the shaft along with considerable diamond drilling. This work was not productive and on account of the presence of the Last Chance porphyry stock the prospects did not appear promising. Therefore, the company pulled out from the shaft and transferred its operations to a block of Commercial limestone above the Armstrong Tunnel in the production of low grade copper sulphide containing appreciable amounts of gold and silver, an ore desirable for flux at the company's Garfield Smelter.

Also, the AS&RCo under an agreement was permitted to extend a drift on the ______ level of the Niagara No. 2 shaft of the US mine into Armstrong ground. A small showing of low grade lead-zinc was disclosed on the _______________ but its development was not promising, and quickly abandoned.

During this period of exploration the AS&R mining and geological staffs had collected a mass of information which directed their attention to the ore possibilities in the Commercial group of claims of the Bingham Mines Company. The Commercial mine had been quite productive from early days up to 1915. At surface for oxidized gold ores which at a relative shallow depth gave way to copper sulphide ore occurring in the Commercial limestone as replacement deposits and bedded ore related to fissures that extend northerly through the US mine into the Commercial. The bottom work on the Niagara Tunnel level and _______ feet down a northerly dip from surface on the Commercial limestone, disclosed a silicification of the limestone as it approached the Utah Copper porphyry stock accompanied by a marked diminution of copper and the valuable metals in the ore rendering it unprofitable.

However, this Commercial group of claims adjoins the very heart of the US mine on the north and it was calculated that based upon the average dip of the richly productive alphabetical, particularly the "B" limestones, they would dip underneath these claims at economic mining depths. The AS&RCo was aware that there existed a probability of the USCo exercising extra-lateral rights down dip beyond its boundaries, employed Waldemir Lindgren, a prominent geologist and court expert in questions of extra-lateral rights. Mr. Lindgren had just previously given expert evidence in the famous Highland Boy-Utah Apex suit and represented the victorious Utah-Apex Company. The AS&RCo officials, probably based upon Mr. Lindgren's advice discussed with the Bingham Mines Company management a three party arrangement in general as follows: the USCo to carry on the development work and perform the mining of any ore found and mill the same all on a contract basis, the AS&RCo to receive the concentrates for smelting on a contract, and the Bingham Mines Company to furnish the property and to receive any profit accruing from the ore after all the costs were paid. To this arrangement the Bingham Mines Company unhesitatingly gave a flat refusal.

However, at the close of 1928 the estates in Boston that held control of the Bingham Mines Company made it apparent to the company's management in Utah that they wanted to either liquidate or merge their mining interests in Utah with one of the three smelting companies. A few weeks later an examination of the Bingham Mines properties by the Anaconda Copper Company was arranged through the eastern offices of the companies. The examination was conducted by young geologists and engineers of the Anaconda Company trained in Butte, Montana district, but the Bingham and Tintic district's geology and ore occurrences are quite different from those in Butte. Also, it was noted that the examining engineers appeared to give more attention and weight to the possibilities of Tintic than those of Bingham, especially the

Lark mine. In large part the failure of the metallurgical department at Tooele to successfully treat by flotation the Lark vein lead-zinc ores was instrumental in an unfavorable report on the Bingham Mines properties to the extent of not satisfying the Anaconda management to meet the terms laid down by the Bingham Mines officials. During the period of Anaconda's examination, Mr. Downey Muir, General Manager of the USCo was compelled to bide his time, but was immediately prepared to investigate the properties of the Bingham Mines Company and it was so arranged when Anaconda broke off negotiations and retired from the field. The arrangement between the US and Bingham Mines Company provided for a three months period to examine the latter's properties. As Manager of Mines for the Bingham Mines Company I was acquainted with Mr. Muir and most of his organization and had the greatest respect for their abilities, having watched their achievements over many years in visits to the US properties. Although disappointed that the Bingham Mines organization which had successfully carried on profitable operations over a period of 20 years would, most likely end in the event of a sale or merger, and with an abiding faith in the future of the Lark mine I was convinced that Mr. Muir and Mr. Hamilton, manager of US mines, with their knowledge of the Bingham district and "know how" would not give up negotiating until terms would be reached which were satisfactory to both parties. Also, I was especially impressed by the interest displayed in the Lark mine by Mr. Muir and with the thoroughness of the examination.

Messrs. Muir and Hamilton made a number of personal visits to the mines and R.T. Walker geologist and Louis Paddison, sampler were untiring working long hours in gathering information. As per instructions from our Bingham Mines Boston office to cooperate in the examination and feeling that the company was well informed as to the value of its properties and it would use such knowledge on behalf of the stockholders of the Bingham Mines Company, the Utah organization displayed a willingness to furnish data and information which would be helpful to the US Company, and raised no opposition whatsoever. I was greatly pleased with the attitude shown by Messrs Muir and Hamilton during the examination showed their appreciation of the Bingham Mines management's attitude. They had me along with them on many of their inspections and had me provide statistical information and recite the history of the mine's operations; also we discussed the geology and the extralateral rights on the different structures. By the time the examination was completed I felt like I was one of the USCo organization, and fortunately for me when the USCo, on July 23, 1929 acquired the Bingham Mines Company Messrs. Muir and Hamilton gave me the opportunity to join their forces, as assistant to Mr. Hamilton, and bring the entire operating forces, engineering and accounting departments.

In the Bingham district the acquisition consisted of the Lark and Commercial mines, the Winamuck, Dixon and Tiewaukee in lower Bingham and the Montana Bingham Consolidated, a Bingham Mines subsidiary comprising a total of ______ acres of mineral ground and _______ acres of non-mineral ground which is located at the Lark townsite. With such acquisition, especially the Lark mine and followed by extensive exploration and development and capital outlay in this and the US mine along with the construction of an additional unit to the flotation mill at Midvale, the USCo for the past 22 years has contributed in excess of fifty percent of the lead and zinc production of the state of Utah, also appreciable amounts of gold, silver and copper. The Lark mine ore is treated separately from other ores in a unit of the mill on account of certain characteristics which require special attention. Credit is due Mr. Rollin Fallanch, mill superintendent who largely contributed to the successful flotation of Lark vein ores, which heretofore plants of the International Smelting and AS&R refused to accept for flotation but only as direct smelting lead ores and in consequence the Bingham Mines Co. was never paid for the zinc in the Lark vein ores, which content is about equivalent to that of lead. However, the lead-zinc ore mined from the Commercial and Jordan limestones in the Lark mine were amenable to flotation as applied in the concentrator of the International Smelting Company and therefore such ores were treated under contract with that company, which of course provided for the payment of zinc. This class of ore only constituted about 25 per cent of the mine's production while the Lark vein yielded the remaining 75 per cent.

The Lark property for the past number of years, since its acquisition by the USCo, has ranked first in the production of lead and zinc in Utah. It is located on the south and east slopes of the eastern ridge rising above Bingham Canyon. This property comprises many small mines developed in very early days from near surface workings, some as early as 1865, that extend from Bingham Canyon at its junction with Galena Gulch, easterly thence northeasterly, a total length of ________ feet and just beyond Keystone Gulch. In order of their respective locations from Bingham Canyon toward the east and northeast they are as follows: Cluster, Yosemite, Gladstone-Revere, Keynote, Revere, Brooklyn, Yosemite No. 2, Panhandle, Sampson, Wasatch, Miners Dream, Lead Mine, Dalton Lark, Richmond, Antelope, Cook, Dalton No. 2 and Extra Sessions.

These mines were located on some of the most prominent outcrops in the district on either the Commercial, Lark or Jordan lodes. Early day mining was in the oxidized lead ores, which were hauled by six horse teams to smelters in Salt Lake Valley a distance of approximately 17 miles. The oxidized ores in these mines, located in the eastern part of the district, extend from surface down to and in some places below the original ground water level which, with one exception, the Brooklyn mine, stood at approximately 500 feet vertically below surface; while in the western part, Old Jordan and upper Carr Fork areas, also lower Bingham the oxidized ores are quite shallow and give way to the sulfides within 50 to 200 feet from surface. In the Brooklyn mine the oxidized ores gave way to sulfides at approximately 1000 feet below surface, that might be due to a sill of porphyry, quite impervious to water, which lies over the orebody. Also, in the extreme eastern end of the Dalton & Lark mine and related to only the Lark vein, partial oxidation of the ores extend to approximately 1000 feet below surface, and due, in large part to this deep oxidation of the Lark vein ores approximately seventy-five percent of the production during the Bingham Mines Company operations was not found to be amenable to the flotation process and therefore resulted in the loss of the zinc content.

The Lark mine was the most important of the Bingham Mine's Company's holdings in the Bingham district, but the Commercial group of claims, adjoining the Old Jordan on the north, was the first acquisition by Boston capitalists that later expanded its operations to include the Lark area and other mines in Bingham and Tintic districts. In 1895 and 1896, oxidized gold ore was exploited and treated by the cyanide process without success by the Bingham Gold Mining Company, owners of the Commercial Group of claims. This early work was done from Commercial Gulch, a tributary of Galena Gulch and showed the oxidized ores to give way to copper sulfides within about 100 feet below surface. About 1898 when a lot of attention was focused on Bingham as a potential producer of copper, the Bingham Copper and Gold Mining Company was organized to operate the Commercial Group. The latter company begun extensive exploration of ore in depth from an adit that has its portal in Commercial Gulch in the footwall of the Commercial limestone. It was driven in a northerly direction and laterals were extended therefrom which disclosed large bodies of pyritic copper ore. From the east lateral an inclined shaft was sunk down on the dip of the orebodies which were found to be related to the north-south striking fissures. In 1899 a tunnel designated as the lower Commercial tunnel was driven from the head of Copper Center Gulch southwestward to the Commercial limestone. It crosscut the barren quartzite hangingwall and limestone and was extended westerly disclosing the persistence of the ore shoots ______ feet lower than the old adit from Commercial Gulch. The results of this exploration led the company to erect a semipyritic smelter at Bingham Junction, located north of and adjoining the present site of the USCo's Midvale smelter, and the treatment of ores begun in January 1901. A tunnel had been driven from Copper Center Gulch, tributary to Bingham Canyon, to intersect below the down dip of the orebodies. After development of the orebodies above and below for short distances it appeared to justify the driving of a relatively long tunnel below from Copper Center Gulch. In 1899 a lower tunnel was driven southwestward to crosscut the Commercial limestone from its barren hanging wall to the mineralized horizon on the footwall.

In 1901, Hornblower and Weeks, a large brokerage company with headquarters in Boston, acquired a controlling interest in the Bingham Copper and Gold Mining Company, and Duncan McVichie was made General Manager. Mr. McVichie had operated mines in the Iron Belt area of Wisconsin, and from 1897 to 1901 was superintendent of the DeLamar mines in Mercur, Utah, where he with members of the Hyland and McDonald families introduced, for the first time in the west, the block caving system of mining. This system, with certain modification to fit the conditions and nature of the ore occurrences and wall rock, he applied, for the first time to be used, in the Bingham district. For his supervisory force Mr. McVichie brought with him the same men who had collaborated with him in the caving system used at Mercur. Mr. McVichie possessed unusual faith, hope and courage. He also fully realized that the low grade copper ore, although in large bodies here, would require low costs for profitable production. Therefore to more economically operate the property at depth a tunnel designated as the Mormon tunnel was driven southwestward from Copper Center Gulch _____ feet lower than the lower Commercial tunnel. It crosscut the barren quartzite hangingwall for ______ feet, then a dike-sill of porphyry for ______ feet, then the Commercial limestone. He immediately promoted the construction of a branch railroad of standard gauge to extend from the terminus of the D&RG in lower Bingham to the portal of the Lower Commercial or Mormon Tunnel in Copper Center Gulch, known as the Copper Belt Railroad in _____. On account of steep grades and short radius curves the Shay, a geared type of engine, supplied the power for transportation of the trains of ore, which was limited to 200 tons per train. Also, during 1901 the Bingham Copper and Gold Company financed through the Hornblower and Weeks firm, acquired the Brooklyn, Revere, Yosemite, Lead Mine, Miners Dream, Wasatch, Richmond, Sampson and Dalton-Lark group of mines located in the upper parts of Copper and Yosemite gulches that cut the Bingham range on its east slope toward Jordan Valley and were consolidated with that company under the name Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company.

The Brooklyn and Revere mines are located in the upper part of Yosemite Gulch on the Jordan limestone, the lower of the two main members; the Lead Mine located in upper Copper Gulch on the Commercial limestone; the upper of the two main members; and the Yosemite and the Dalton Lark mines are located on a third zone of mineralization between these two main members and known as the "Lark-Yosemite" vein. This is a typical bedded fissure vein closely related to a lime belt which lies between quartzite walls, and is so thoroughly mineralized that very little limestone remains.

These mines had been worked by separate companies, as early as 1866 from the outcrops of the lodes down their respective dips to short distances below the standing water level and mostly confined to the mining of oxidized lead ores which were hauled by six-horse teams to Jordan valley smelters for treatment, a distance of approximately 17 miles, 5 of which was over winding mountainous roads. At the time of the acquisition of the mines by the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company in 1901 they were closed down and the lower levels filled with water.

This new company projected and put into operation an extensive program of exploration and development at depth. A townsite was laid out at Lark located at the toe of the east slope of the Oquirrh Range and from one to three miles east of the mines' old workings from surface. A branch standard gauge railroad 3 miles long was constructed from a point, designated as Revere Station on the main Bingham branch of the D&RG system to a site at Lark at the bottom of Keystone Gulch. Here a modern steam power plant with a capacity of 250 horsepower and shops were constructed and an Allis Chalmers air compressor of 2600 cubic feet per minute and generator set to furnish DC electric current at 500 volts were installed. Adjacent to these mine facilities the portal of a drainage and haulage tunnel designated as the Mascotte Tunnel was located on the Mascotte placer claim. The tunnel was driven westerly in an andesite flow from its portal for 5475 feet where it intersects the contact of the flow with quartzite, developing a large flow of water which caused suspension of work at the face for a short period. From the 5600 foot point in the tunnel a direct crosscut was started northwesterly toward the down dip of the productive lodes but so much water was developed that after about six hundred feet of advance the crosscutting was stopped and then the advance of the tunnel was resumed westerly in quartzite to approximately the 6200 feet point, where it intersects the Jordan limestone which in those days in this area was called the Brooklyn limestone. It was further advanced westerly crosscutting diagonally through this limestone to the 7100 foot point without much water trouble, the limestone being hard and compact while the quartzite is extremely fractured and permeable to water. From this 7100 foot point the tunnel was extended northerly in quartzite to the 7400 foot point where it intersects the Lark vein and was later connected by raising with the bottom of the Mascotte winze sunk from the _____

level off the Antelope incline shaft which was collared at surface on a prominent outcrop of this vein.

Concurrently with the driving of the Mascotte Tunnel the Brooklyn inclined shaft located in upper Yosemite Gulch and down 1300 feet on an average dip of 38 degrees was reclaimed and the Miners Dream tunnel with its portal located in Copper Gulch on a prominent outcrop of the Jordan limestone constituting the Miners Dream lode, and started in early days, was extended southwesterly along the lode _____ feet to a connection with the Brooklyn Incline corresponding with its 800 level. Also the Dalton No. 2 Inclined shaft with its collar located on the south slope of Copper Gulch at a prominent outcrop of the Lark vein in the Lark lode claim and down 600 feet on an average dip of 38 degrees was reclaimed.

Hoisting facilities were erected at the 800 level of the Brooklyn incline and at the collar of the Dalton No. 2 incline and a 8-inch pipeline was laid on surface from the power plant at Lark to the Dalton No. 2 incline and portal of the Miners Dream conducting compressed air for drilling, pumping and hoisting. a tramway was laid, winding around from the Lark site up to the Dalton No. 2 shaft and the portal of the Miners Dream tunnel, replacing much of the old Lead Mine tram (Rube Nell). Trolley locomotives hauled the empty cars up and loaded cars of ore were coasted down by manual braking to the ore bins erected on the Lark branch railroad at Lark.

Concurrently with the exploration and developments on and above the Mascotte Tunnel, the Brooklyn and Dalton No. 2 inclines were unwatered and extended with laterals driven on the 1400, 1500 and 1600 levels of the Brooklyn and the 700, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 of the Dalton No. 2 shaft. Also, from the 1100 level on the Lark vein west of the Dalton No. 2 incline a crosscut was driven northwest 200 feet to the footwall of the Commercial limestone and from this crosscut development work was carried on for two hundred feet up on the dip of the Lead Mine oreshoot. However, this work was confined almost entirely to the copper sulphide ores. This policy of development of copper sulphide prevailed throughout the Bingham Consolidated Company's operation in the Brooklyn, Dalton-Lark and Lead Mine and in consequence the lead ores were generally overlooked, while in earlier days mining in these mines were practically confined to oxidized lead ores. This policy in large part can be explained by the fact that in order to maintain its copper smelter operating at near full capacity the production of copper ores was of first importance. The Commercial mine and Dalton-Lark mines each was maintaining a production of approximately 250 tons of the copper ore per day along with carrying on exploration and development work.

By 1905 the results of these operations had not come up to expectations and through Hornblower Weeks firm American Smelting & Refining Company engineers who had completed the examination of the Utah Copper mine and led by Henry Krumb examined the Bingham Consolidated Company's properties in the Bingham district. However, it was reported that the properties failed to be of sufficient interest to obtain the A.S.& R. Company's participation in the venture. In 1906 F. Augustus Heinze, fresh from his laurels in his fight with the Standard Oil interests in Butte, decided to enter the Bingham district. His engineers led by Alfred Frank examined the Bingham Consolidated properties and the Ohio Copper mine. A deal was consummated that year for the control of the Ohio Copper mine and an option on a large block of Bingham Consolidated Company's stock.

Whereupon Duncan McVichie was appointed managing director for both the Heinze interests and those of the Bingham Consolidated Company. Already court injunctions had been served which prohibited copper-pyritic smelting in Salt Lake Valley after December 31, 1907. Heinze then planned the erection of a smelter in Settlement Canyon, near Tooele, Utah and purchased a site there. The plant designed by Herman Bellinger, who later was general manager of the Chucicamata Copper operation in South America, was to treat both copper and lead ores. More interest had developed in the potentialities of lead sulfides in the Dalton-Lark mines and in the spring of 1907, a lead furnace was added to the Bingham Consolidated smelters a supplement to the copper smelting.

The great success of the Utah Copper in the treatment of disseminated copper ores was now very apparent so Heinze's interest was in the Ohio Copper mine rather than his options on the Bingham Consolidated properties. Therefore he negotiated the purchase of the Mascotte Tunnel for $157,000 and organized the Bingham Central Railway Company to operate the tunnel for the transportation of Ohio mine ores and with extensions from there to serve other mines in the Bingham district. Also, in 1907 agreements were made with the Bingham Consolidated for the perpetual haulage of its ores through the tunnel at a reasonably fixed rate of 10 cents per ton and for the use of all waters developed and flowing from the tunnel. By February 1907 plans were underway for the construction of a 6000 ton copper concentrator on a site selected at Lark, mile from the portal of the Mascotte Tunnel and followed the excavation, construction of railroads connecting with the Lark =branch and the erection of the concentrator. Concurrently with this construction work the Ohio crosscut was driven westerly from a point 9200 feet in the Mascotte Tunnel to the Ohio property, and the upper part of the Ohio Copper mine down to the 700 level was being blocked out preparatory for block-caving introducing the finger-raise system. Also the Ohio three compartment incline shaft at 50 degrees was being sunk and a raise from the tunnel level to connect with the shaft together with long transfer chutes and loading bins were under construction.

Good progress was being made in Mr. Heinze's plans along with the making of contracts for the treatment of ores produced in Utah other than the Bingham district, especially that with the Silver King Coalition in Park City which was later hotly contested in Utah courts. However, by the fall of 1907 Mr. Heinze had spread his financing so thinly that the "money panic" at that time prevented him from going ahead with all his plans. The Miners Smelting Company's smelter at Tooele was only in the blue printing stage and no further work done and other obligations he assumed respecting the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company were never fulfilled. Under the terms of the ten years ore contract with the Silver King Coalitions, Heinze was required to have a smelter in Utah so he obtained a lease and option on an old smelter located at Milford, Utah. Although this smelter was inoperative at the time, Mr. Heinze had diverted Silver King ores for treatment to the American Smelting and Refining Company's plants in Utah under a contract between him and the latter company which contract provided him substantially more in smelter returns than he was required to pay the mining company for such ores under the contract between him and the Silver King Coalition. The Silver King Company, in the suit against Heinze in its endeavor to break the contract, based its complaint on the fact the Heinze failed to erect a smelter in Utah but the Court found that he was able to fulfill the terms of his contract and in fact had in his possession the Milford smelter.

Mr. Heinze had purchased a large block of the Silver King Coalition stock and had come to its aid when this mining company was faced with the payment of a large sum decreed by the court on account of trespass and unlawful extraction of ore from a neighboring mining company's property. This aid was performed at the same time he negotiated such a favorable ore contract and it was allowed to continue for the specified term of ten years during one of the many periods of high production from this famous mine in Park City and noted for its rich silver-lead ores.

With an abiding faith in the Ohio Copper property Mr. Heinze by disposing of some of his other interests and after a temporary stoppage of work at the mine and Lark, the mill started operating in 1909 at a rate of approximately 3000 tons of copper disseminated ore occurring in the marginal quartzite adjacent to the Utah Copper porphyry orebody.

The "money panic" in the fall of 1907 also affected the operation of the Bingham Consolidated Company. Facing a shutdown of its copper smelter at Bingham Junction by court decree, the company greatly reduced its production to selective mining of its high grade copper ores and developments preparatory to a complete shutdown as of December 31, 1907. At this time the Lark vein had been developed down to the Mascotte Tunnel level measuring 1300 feet on a dip of 36[?] from its outcrop at which horizon the vein was disclosed for 4500 feet in length along its northeasterly and southwesterly strike comprising a series of oreshoots of minable dimensions extending up dip and gave promise of continuations in depth. The oreshoots have irregular boundaries with low grade vein material between and both on and directly above the tunnel mining operations under the Bingham Mines Company, the successor of the Bingham Consolidated, shows that approximately forty per cent of this 4500 feet length productive and in most part silver-lead ores instead of copper ores which with its semipyritic smelter the Bingham Consolidated Company was especially interested in developing. Also, at this time the Lead Mine oreshoot in the Commercial limestone had been blocked out preparatory for mining from the Mascotte tunnel up dip for approximately 500 feet, corresponding to the 800 level from the surface outcrop. This development work was practically confirmed to the easterly portion of the orebody containing a low grade pyritic copper sulphide ore carrying appreciable amounts of gold and silver.

In Bingham the Commercial oreshoot by December 13, 1907 had been developed from the outcrop in the Commercial limestone down on a dip of approximately 30 degrees northerly and toward the Utah Copper orebody to the 200 level below the lowest Commercial, or Mormon Tunnel, a dip length of ______ feet, ________ width along strike and 4 to 50 feet thick.

This general shoot is not continuous ore, but includes several bodies which, although once continuous are in several instances separated by faults. Porphyry is disclosed both at surface and in many of the workings and although the limestone is constant in its dip at about 30 degrees toward the north there has been excessive fissuring and some faulting. These deformations and presence of porphyry caused complications of the structure but not to an extent that interferes with exploiting ore. The oreshoot lies well within the limestone in the upper portion of the mine but appears to approach the footwall quartzite in depth.

The Bingham Consolidated Company to round out its holdings and further cover the outcrop of the Lark vein on its southwesterly strike acquired stock control of the Sampson Mining Company and the properties of the Yosemite Mining Company and Yosemite No. 2 Mining Company.

The Sampson Company's holdings comprised a small group of claims on the south slope of Copper Gulch and adjoined the Dalton and Lark property on the northeast. Early day mining exploited a shoot of lead ore down dip on the Lark vein by a series of short tunnels driven southwesterly from the south slope of the gulch. The lowest [part] of the tunnel has its portal at the very bottom of the gulch and its intersection with the vein. The shoot was developed at depth through the Sampson Incline sunk from this low tunnel at a dip of approximately 35 degrees to the northwest. However in relatively short distance these developments were underneath the property lines of the Yosemite No. 2 Mining Company adjoining on the southwest and northwest. A dispute arose as to the ownership of this oreshoot down dip but was settled in awarding the Sampson Company certain defined extra-lateral rights.

The Yosemite No. 2 Mining Company comprised a small group of claims extending from Copper Gulch southwesterly up its south slope to the top of the ridge between this gulch and Yosemite Gulch. Near the top of the ridge its claims covered portions of the outcrop of Lark-Yosemite vein and Commercial limestone, and exposed at surface is a sill-like porphyry intrusion lying within the quartzite hangingwall of the Lark vein and extending into a footwall portion of the Commercial limestone. Although this porphyry dips slightly steeper than the Lark-Yosemite vein, its strike makes an oblique angle with the strike of the vein and does not cut off the Yosemite No. 2 oreshoot but in places forms the hangingwall of the ore. At surface the porphyry is relatively small but is of considerable extent along its strike as disclosed at depth on the Mascotte Tunnel level. However its thickness (from foot to hanging) at depth is practically unchanged from that found at surface and as a result a good portion of the Commercial limestone persists to depth in this area and has been highly productive.

The early day mining on the Yosemite No. 2 oreshoot was also carried on by a series of short tunnels driven southwesterly on the vein at successive lower elevations from the south side of Copper Gulch. The lowest of these tunnels, the Yosemite No. 2, has its portal at the bottom of the gulch about _____ feet above the portal of the Sampson lower tunnel; however, the tunnel commences in the hangingwall quartzite of the Lark-Yosemite vein and courses southeasterly to the vein, thence southwesterly following the vein up dip to the dike-sill which at surface directly above does not interrupt the vein but lies in the quartzite hangingwall. Approximately 100 feet northeast of the dike-sill an inclined shaft was sunk from the Yosemite No. 2 tunnel on the dip of the Lark-Yosemite vein and levels extended northeasterly at approximately 100 foot intervals developed a lead oreshoot down to the ground water level, which approximates 800 feet, as measured on the dip of the vein from the surface.

The Yosemite Mining Company comprised a small group of claims extending from the center of the north fork of Yosemite gulch northeasterly to the ridge above Copper Gulch and southwesterly to the top of the ridge above Bear Gulch in Upper Bingham Canyon. These claims for _500 feet in a southwest-northeast direction covers the outcrop of the Lark-Yosemite vein which for most of this length stands out as the most continuous, prominent and conspicuous in the district. The property on the northeast adjoins the Sampson and Yosemite No. 2 mines and on the southwest the Old Telegraph Mine of the USCo. The early days development consisted of a series of tunnels at successive lower elevations driven southwesterly on the vein from the west slope of the north fork of Yosemite Gulch down to the lowest, the Yosemite No. 1 tunnel which was driven ____ feet. This tunnel is along the vein and mining from it extended up to surface through connections with the series of upper tunnels.

On the east slope of Bingham Canyon at the bottom of Bear Gulch the Cluster Mining Company, controlled by Bamberger and Ferry interests, was owner and was developing a group of claims that extended from the bottom of Upper Bingham Canyon easterly up the slope to the ridge and thence down into the upper part of the north fork of Yosemite Gulch. At surface this property discloses the Commercial limestone and a large mass of barren porphyry, which connects down canyon with the Utah Copper stock. This porphyry mass occurs on the hangingwall side of the limestone and a crosscut tunnel, designated Cluster or Falco[?], with its portal on the east slope of Bingham Canyon was driven ______ feet through porphyry, thence ______ feet in quartzite to the top of the Commercial limestone. Lateral work from the tunnel disclosed a lead oreshoot at the footwall contact of the limestone with quartzite. A raise of approximately 80 feet on the dip of the ore broke into the Yosemite No. 1 tunnel on the Lark vein at its intersection with a fault. A dispute arose as to the ownership of the ore. The Bingham Consolidated Company claiming the orebody by virtue of it owning the apex and having extra-lateral rights. However, in the spring of 1907 the two companies got together and consolidated the Cluster property and the Yosemite Mining Company's property, now owned by the Bingham Consolidated, forming a new organization, the Yosemite Mines Company, the control of which was owned by the Bingham Consolidated Company.

For development at depth the Yosemite Mining Company in early days, sunk the Yosemite No. 1 Incline shaft down on the dip averaging 38 degrees of the Lark-Yosemite vein to the 800 level and extended levels, at intervals of approximately 100 feet, therefrom both northeasterly and southwesterly along the vein. The vein toward the southwest gradually circles around to nearly a westerly course on the east slope of Bingham Canyon. The ground water level was encountered at approximately the 700 level, as measured on the dip, and the oxidized lead ores from surface to here gave way to sulfides and largely low grade copper pyritic material. The northeast faces on the 700 and 800 encountered the dike sill mass of porphyry described on the Yosemite No. 2 group. It is noted that average thickness, approximately 5 feet of the Lark-Yosemite vein, southwest of Copper Gulch is much less than it is in the Dalton-Lark end northeast of this gulch. This, no doubt, can be attributed to the fact that the limestone bedding, so closely related to this vein, is a lentil which toward the west is quite thin and entirely replaced by ore or vein material with quartzite foot and hangingwalls while in the Dalton and Lark end the limestone lentil is thicker and affords a better host rock for mineralization than the quartzite. Also, it is noted that toward the southwest in the old Cluster group there is considerable faulting which brought the Commercial limestone into the path of the Lark-Yosemite Vein.

The early day production of oxidized lead ores of the Yosemite Mining Company was hauled by six horse teams, first to a smelter in the Jordan Valley then later to a [Revere?] mill erected at the confluence of Yosemite Gulch with Butterfield Canyon, where water was easily available. This mill was about three miles above Herriman, a farming community that used Butterfield Creek water for irrigation. In the milling operation the Yosemite Mining Company was accused of allowing the mill tailings to flow into Butterfield Creek and thus foul up the water used for irrigation. Considerable bad feeling developed over this issue and eventually the mill was destroyed by fire. The mill was never rebuilt and the mine allowed to fill up with water which stood at approximately the 700 level when acquired by the Bingham Consolidated Company.

Also, it is noted that in the area southwest of Copper Gulch the orebodies on the Lark-Yosemite vein were profitably exploited from surface while in the Dalton-Lark ground northeast of this gulch the area along this vein is in large part covered by a flow of andesite. Although the vein extends into this andesite with prominent outcrops in places, the Dalton Nos. 1 and 2 and Antelope inclined shafts sunk from surface disclose a strong fissure vein on its dip, averaging 38 degrees, but the mineralization is sparse until about 450 feet, measured on the dip, was reached in these inclines. At this horizon a lead-silver orebody, with its upper limits lying almost horizontal, was disclosed for approximately 1500 feet along the strike. The Dalton and Lark Mining and Milling Company erected a mill near the collar of the No. 2 incline and proceeded to develop and mine the vein down to approximately the 800 level. The ground water level, however, stood at approximately the 700 level where the oxidized lead ores gave way to sulfides and as depth was gained the flow of water to be handled increased which hampered deeper work with attendant increasing costs. In 1893 mining in Bingham was seriously set back when Indian mints were closed to the free coinage of silver and the United States Congress repealed an act providing for the purchase of 4,500,000 fine ounces of silver a month. These all led to large-scale closing down of the mines and the cost of keeping the deeper workings free from water became prohibitive so they were allowed to fill up and this was the condition confronting the Bingham Consolidated Company when it acquired the properties.

The Lead Mine Company, controlled by Hanauer interests that carried on early day lead smelting in the Bingham Junction area, comprised a small group of claims located in the upper part of Copper Gulch and covering the outcrop of the Commercial limestone. The Lead Mine orebody outcropped at surface in the bottom of the gulch and was developed by a vertical shaft sunk through the orebody, limestone and into the quartzite footwall. This shaft, _____ feet deep has approximately the bottom 60 feet in the footwall quartzite and levels at 60 foot intervals were driven therefrom in a general southwesterly direction to develop the orebody and explore this limestone member. It appears, however, that the only production came from this discovery orebody. It is a large bedded vein of lead ore that, on the 400 level, lies on the quartzite footwall of the limestone, but toward surface the ore branches out into the limestone as a succession of ore chimneys of unusual dimensions.

A mill was constructed by the Lead Mine Company on a site located at the south side of the entrance to Bingham Canyon and alongside the Bingham branch of the D&RG system. This location has been a designated shipping point for a great many years but had not been in use since the 90's, to any extent, until revived ____ years later as the shipping point for US mine ores, materials, and supplies, when the Bingham and Garfield was abandoned in 1947. The mine was located about 3 and one-half miles southerly and the ore was transported in cars over a surface tram to the mill. The tram winded around the east slope of the Oquirrh mountain range on a rather uniform down grade so that the cars of ore could be coasted down and controlled by manual braking. A mule hauled a string of empty cars back to the mine and had a specially constructed car to ride back down to the mill. The stoping operations close to the shaft caused it to cave in and its repair and maintenance was prohibitive, so the company sunk an incline shaft in the solid quartzite hangingwall of the limestone. Its collar is located at the bottom of Copper Gulch, about _____ feet northwest of the original vertical shaft. There is evidence on the dump that workings from this incline were driven into the hangingwall and easterly portions of the Lead Mine orebody, and in the sulphide zone consisting mostly of low grade pyritic material. Northeast of the Lead Mine, in the area lying above and between the Dalton No. 2 and Antelope Inclined shafts sunk on the Lark vein, early day prospecting disclosed two outcrops of lead ore in the Commercial limestone located in a relatively shallow gulch tributary to Copper Gulch. These were first exploited by the Richmond Mining Company comprising a small group of claims covering the outcrop of the Commercial limestone through inclined shafts. The Richmond incline discloses a strong fracture zone near the hanging wall of the limestone and stoping on a small lead orebody to a depth of approximately 125 feet. Also an _________ incline shaft was sunk on the outcrop, which descends as a sinuous pipe of lead ore on the footwall quartzite of this limestone.

The Richmond Mining Company was acquired by the Dalton Lark Mining and Milling Company; this latter company carried on extensive lateral development of the Commercial limestone from footwall to hangingwall. The work was confined to the 640 foot level driven from crosscuts connected with laterals driven from the Daltons 1 and 2 and Antelope Inclines on the Lark vein. It was very disappointing in that it failed to disclose the downward continuations of the orebodies exploited from surface, except in one instance a small showing of lead ore on a bedding about 25 feet below the hangingwall quartzite of this limestone where a raise was driven but failed to disclose a profitable orebody.

In the area below the Dalton No. 2 Incline where Copper Gulch crosses the Jordan limestone the Miner's Dream orebody outcrops on a bedding about _____ feet below the hangingwall quartzite of this limestone. This outcrop was exploited from surface by an incline sunk approximately 100 feet and stoping therefrom produced oxidized lead ore that averaged about three feet in thickness. For deeper development of this orebody the Miner's Dream Incline was sunk, with its collar at practically the bottom of the gulch and just below the outcrop, to a depth of ____ feet. Levels at intervals of _____ feet were extended from crosscuts driven from the incline and disclosed a continuation of this lead orebody. The bottom level entered the ground water level where a considerable flow of water was encountered that prohibited deeper work, although the orebody showed persistence in depth.

When the Bingham Consolidated acquired this property in 1901, the Miners Dream Incline had caved, so it sunk the Wasatch Incline, also located in the bottom of Copper Gulch approximately _____ feet southwest of the Miner's Dream Incline. This incline descended on the footwall of the Jordan limestone for ______ feet and with levels at regular intervals exploited a shoot of copper ore, but also encountered a considerable flow of water at the ground water level, so further work was abandoned here.

Also in this area on the Jordan limestone the Wasatch Tunnel, with its portal _____ feet southwest of the Miners Dream Incline and located on the south slope of Copper Gulch at a prominent outcrop of lead ore, was driven southwesterly about 1200 feet by the early day miners. This tunnel was caved by 1901 but on surface above its length there are indications that might lead to ore right up to the Panhandle lead oreshoot that outcrops at surface on the ridge between Copper and Yosemite gulches [Wilbur's note: "Red" Coombs lease, 1950's: he went after yellow plumbo-jarosite dumps in the area during late '50's.]

Between the portal of this Wasatch tunnel and Miner's Dream Incline is the portal of the Miner's Dream Tunnel located on the south side, at practically the bottom of Copper Gulch but at a lower elevation than the Wasatch Tunnel. This tunnel was driven by early day miners about 1000 feet southwesterly in the Jordan limestone and disclosed a small pipe of lead ore which, by a raise, was exploited up to a connection with the outcrop of lead ore at the portal of the Wasatch Tunnel.

In 1901 the Bingham Consolidated Company reclaimed the Miner's Dream Tunnel and extended it southwesterly in the Jordan limestone. At a point _____ feet from the portal a shoot of lead ore was disclosed. This shoot was exploited above the tunnel level to connections with early day stoping carried on in the Brooklyn Mine, and by the White Lead Winze for ____ feet below. The ore occurs as a sinuous pipe apparently related to a complex fissuring and although relatively small, it is very high grade and was mined at a good profit. From the winze the tunnel was extended further in the Jordan limestone to a connection with the Brooklyn incline at its 800 level.

During early day mining on the Dalton & Lark group of mines, the several properties extending from the Revere and Yosemite on the southwest slope of Yosemite Gulch northeasterly to the Antelope on the north slope of Copper Gulch, a distance of 1 miles, there is a record of 244,541 tons of lead ores produced with an average assay per ton of 38.79% of lead, 12.25 oz. silver and .0716 oz. gold, which was calculated from the following:


Name of Mine

Total Tons

Lead %

Ounces Silver Per Ton

Ounces Gold Per Ton





Ounces Silver

Total Ounces Gold

Dalton & Lark
















Yosemite No. 2








Lead Mine
















Yosemite No. 1

























The Revere mine is situated on the west slope of the north fork of Yosemite Gulch about 1500 feet southwest of the Brooklyn mine. It is located on a prominent outcrop of a strong fracture zone which strikes southwest and dips northwest in the Jordan limestone. The orebody in early days was exploited from surface by an incline shaft to a depth of approximately 580 feet. Also a tunnel was driven from the gulch toward the west connecting with the incline at its 300-foot level and with the 125 foot level from the Brooklyn incline which was driven southwesterly along the footwall of the Jordan limestone. Both at surface and down the Revere Incline the Jordan limestone averages only about 16 feet thick and the limestone and quartzite walls are brecciated containing small seams of lead ore extending out from the main body of ore.

Farther to the southwest and within the Revere claim is the Revere-Gladstone incline situated on the north slope and near the top of the west fork of Yosemite Gulch. This incline, sunk in early days to a depth of approximately 450 feet is located on the Jordan limestone about 200 feet east of its contact with a porphyry intrusion which outcrops on the divide between Bear Gulch and the west fork of Yosemite Gulch. This incline has never been accessible since 1901 and there is no record or evidence of any production through it. However there is no doubt that development work was carried on from the incline because in 1930 a raise on the footwall of the Jordan limestone from the 800 level connected by a crosscut to the Yosemite No. 1 Incline shaft broke into old mine workings which most likely were driven from a low level of this Revere-Gladstone incline. The raise is on sparse mineralization at the footwall contact of the Jordan limestone with quartzite and at an elevation and location relatively close to the bottom of this incline, as found on an old map. [The Revere ore shoot was intersected and mined from a connection with the St. Joe Tunnel in the 1950's. No significant amounts of ore were encountered; bad air from old workings, especially during the summer months, was a constant hazard.]

The Keynote Mining Company comprised three lode claims, the Keynote, Surprise and Keynote Extension situated near the top of the west fork of Yosemite Gulch. The Keynote is located on the quartzite forming the footwall of the Jordan limestone and its southerly side-line coincides with the northerly side-line of the Revere claim. The Revere claim is so located as to completely intrude within its boundaries the outcrop of the Jordan limestone on its strike and passing out the respective end-lines of this claim.

In early days the Keynote Mining Company drove the Keynote crosscut tunnel, with its portal at the bottom of the gulch, on the Surprise claim, on a northerly course for approximately 400 feet crosscutting the Surprise, Revere, and Keynote claims in this order. The tunnel intersects the Jordan limestone on its dip to the northwest beneath the Keynote claim. Lateral work from this tunnel disclosed a small orebody in the limestone within the boundaries of the Keynote claim. Also the Revere Mining Company had driven its 300 level westerly in the Jordan limestone and disclosed ore down dip from the orebody found in the Keynote Tunnel. An inclined raise following ore in the Jordan limestone was made from the Revere 300 level and broke into the Keynote workings.

The Revere Company claimed the orebody based upon the exercise of its extra-lateral rights by virtue of owning the apex of the Jordan lode. A lawsuit followed and was decided in favor of the Revere Company.

In _____ the Bingham Mines Company was organized with an authorized capital of __________, of which 150,000 shares of par common were issued to acquire the assets and liabilities of the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Besides its properties in the Bingham district the latter company owned controlling interest in the Eagle and Blue Bell Mining Company and the American Star Mining Company whose properties are situated at Eureka, Utah in the Tintic Mining District, also, an abandoned copper smelter situated in Midvale. The board of directors was made up of a group of Boston businessmen including some of the directors of Hornblower and Weeks brokerage firm of Boston with branch houses in New York and other eastern cities. The main liability inherited by this new company was a bond issue in the amount of $1,500,000.00 largely held by clients of the Hornblower and Weeks firm. Also the stock was largely held in relatively large blocks by associates of this firm and in smaller amounts by the firm's customers.

The new company was a Maine corporation with its head office in Boston and operating office in the Dooly Block, Salt Lake City, Utah. Operations were started in the spring of 1909 with Imer Pett as business manager, James Creighton, General Superintendent at Lark, Joseph Hyland, Superintendent of the Commercial mine at Bingham and William Owens, Superintendent of the Eagle and Blue Bell Mine at Eureka, Utah.

The properties were all equipped and had been maintained during the shutdown in 1908. However, the Boston owners in disappointment over the results of the Bingham Consolidated Company's operations from 1901 to 1908 decided on practically a liquidation policy. That is, to mine out only the ore in sight that was profitable and carry on only such development work necessary to make such ore available for shipment. They advised that no financial aid could be expected and a continuation of operations depended upon the net returns from production being adequate to meet expenses. Nevertheless they did have hope that enough revenue would be obtained to meet the interest payments on the outstanding bond issue.

During the seven years of the Bingham Consolidated Company's operation many practical miners including Cornishmen, Italians and Austrians had established homes of their own in Lark and were available when operations were resumed. So they were acquainted with the mine workings and the nature and character of the ore occurrences. Therefore the Lark mine was opened up for leasing. The Lessees selected a block of ground and signed a prepared form of lease covering a three month period with a provision for renewal. The lease provided that the company furnish certain services at prescribed rates and the ore be shipped in the name of the company designated as an individual lot and separate from other ores and settlements of net smelter returns be made in accordance with the ore contracts between the Company and the Smelter treating such ore. The Lessor to make settlement with the Lessee for his respective shipment by payment to him the balance of the net smelter returns after deductions for services and supplies furnished by the company and a royalty calculated on a sliding scale based upon the net value per ton of ore.

This leasing operation provided funds to carry on an exploration program. The Commercial mine was put in production of copper ore on company account which was shipped to the Yampa smelter located in lower Bingham that produced a copper matte, until it closed down in ______. The Commercial 2 compartment incline shaft, with its collar at the lower Commercial tunnel level was extended from its 200 level to the 330 level and laterals were extended therefrom on the 250, 300 and 330 levels easterly and westerly and disclosed a continuation of the orebody practically up to the respective property lines. Production was maintained at approximately 200 tons per day, and after the closing of the Yampa smelter, the ore was shipped to the Garfield smelter of the American Smelting and Refining company under a very favorable contract. On account of the character of the ore, with an excess of iron over silica it was very desirable as a flux for Utah Copper concentrates which with gravity concentration carried an excess of silica. The mining here was quite simple, the ore was from four to fifteen feet thick with a solid hanging-wall, and the method of laying out the stoping was by leaving pillars where necessary to avoid the expense of timbering or filling. By close sampling the pillars were generally in unprofitable material and when in ore were practically removed and shipped at the end of the stoping operation by retreating back from the respective faces on a level toward the shaft.

In 1911, the Utah Copper Company needed Copper Center Gulch for disposal of its overburden produced in its pit operation, which meant the removal of the commercial operation from its site at the portal of the Lower Commercial or Mormon tunnel to a new site, which was selected near the portal of the Niagara tunnel. When the Utah Copper so advised the Bingham Mines Company the management of the latter company on the advice of its attorneys felt quite secure in taking the position to drive a hard bargain, as to adequate substitute facilities to be provided by Utah Copper for those in use at and through the Commercial lowest tunnel. In checking the records the Bingham Mines management learned that its facilities and the portal of this tunnel was on boston Consolidated ground, now Utah Copper Company, under a verbal arrangement between the managements of the Bingham Consolidated and Boston Consolidated companies and there was not a deed covering the site to the Bingham Consolidated. But since the site had been occupied uninterrupted for more than seven years the Bingham Mines Company apparently had possession by squatter's rights. However, Mr. Bradley, attorney for Utah Copper in checking the records learned that at the time of the organization of the Bingham Mines Company that the assets of the Bingham Consolidated were sold at Sheriff's sale. He then advised the Bingham Mines Company that squatter's rights did not go to a successor by a Sheriff's sale according to the law which, very much chagrined, the latter company's attorneys acknowledges. With the fate of this operation at stake and no hope of obtaining funds to move its facilities and provide for another entrance to its mine, the Bingham Mines Company showed a stubborn reluctance to get out of Copper Center Gulch at its own expense.

Whereupon time being the essence with Utah Copper not to become involved in a long and costly lawsuit its General Manager, Robert Gemmell offered a solution which was acceptable to the Bingham Mines Company as adequate substitute facilities for the operation of the mine during a life expectancy of twenty years. However, there was another factor: the Copper Belt Branch of the D&RG railroad, which might have influenced the Utah Copper in arranging, at its own expense, a new site for the Commercial mine operation at and through the Niagara tunnel owned by the Niagara Mining Company, a subsidiary of the United States Smelting Refining and Mining Company.

Accordingly, the Copper Belt tracks skirted the southwest slope of Copper Center Gulch from Bingham Canyon up to the ore-bins and mine yard at the portal of the lowest Commercial Tunnel and for many years had provided transportation service for this mine operation. So Utah Copper to utilize the full capacity of this gulch also must bring about the abandonment of these tracks and the Bingham Mines Company was informed by the D&RG Company late in the negotiations covering substitute facilities, that the Railroad Company would be required to have the permission of the Bingham Mines Company before it could abandon its service to the company's mine. This knowledge did not affect further negotiations because Mr. Gemmell had shown a willingness to be fair and reasonable in making the Bingham Mines Company whole in its operation through the Niagara tunnel.

At this time the Silver Shield Mining Company, headed by Harry S. Joseph, was operating its mine through the Niagara tunnel under an operating agreement with the Niagara Mining Company. The Utah Copper Company purchased the Silver Shield Company's electric trolley haulage equipment in the tunnel which was turned over to the Bingham Mines Company and an agreement was drawn between the latter company and the Silver Shield covering the transportation of its ores, waste, supplies and men to and from the Silver Shield siding which was located approximately 2200 feet from the portal. Also, an agreement initiated by the Utah Copper was made between the Niagara Mining Company and Bingham Mines Company dated _________ for the use of the Niagara tunnel as a haulage tunnel for the latter company's operation of its Commercial mine over a period of twenty years. To serve its purpose it required the driving of a crosscut from a point ______ feet from the portal on a _____ course _____ feet, thence a raise on the dip of the lode ______ feet to a connection with the bottom of the inclined shaft sunk _______ feet below the Commercial lowest tunnel. Also, the agreement provided for a right-of-way over Niagara Company surface to ore-bins which were erected on adjoining Utah Copper property and the ore to be hauled by the Utah Copper to the Bingham and Garfield a common carrier. A described surface tract near the portal of the tunnel on Niagara property was turned over to the Bingham Mines Company as a site for buildings and other facilities necessary in the mine operation.

Accordingly operations at the lowest Commercial tunnel were suspended in _____ and by ______ the construction work and installation of equipment at the new site was completed. The driving of the crosscut and raise to a connection with the Commercial mine required approximately _____ months. Before connection was made the Utah Copper Company had filled in Copper Center Gulch to the extent of covering up the portal of the lowest Commercial tunnel and it was anticipated the workings below this tunnel would fill up with water. When the raise above the Niagara tunnel reached a point approximately 50 feet from a connection with the inclined shaft, the percolating copper water from the mine workings above had so increased as to slow up progress and the ground, a white limestone, was increasingly difficult to hold and advance in. Also, with the mine above filled with water and the barrier between the raising operation not very solid ground there existed increasingly this hazard as mining advanced. So for safety a sublevel was driven westerly 50 feet from a point about 20 feet below the top of the raise in a hard pyritic material, practically impermeable to water. Near the face of this sublevel a raise was made in this hard material to a point according to survey 10 feet from a connection with the bottom level of the mine. From this point in the raise a hole was drilled from a piston machine through to the side of the ____ level. The part of the main raise above the sublevel provided a retreat for the machine man in case of a rush of water, but fortunately it was not needed for that purpose. There was considerable pressure of water flowing out of the drill hole but to augment the draining of the mine workings a pipe with one end closed was driven tightly into the hole, filled with powder and blasted to spring the hole. This procedure was successful in that the ditch in the tunnel was filled to capacity and the mine workings completely drained in a relatively short time.

Production of copper ore was resumed along with the development of the orebody on and above the tunnel level. However, these lower workings showed a marked falling of copper and valuable metal contents of the ore. The rate of production was 200 tons per day and with the introduction of economies a mining cost of _____ per ton was attained but even with this achievement the conditions did not appear to justify developments below the Niagara tunnel on this orebody, which had been exploited from surface down dip a length of ______ feet and laterally, that is along strike for _____ feet within the boundaries of the Commercial property. So by _______ 1915, the profitable ore had been practically exhausted and the mine was closed down.

Besides the production of copper ore which was on company account, some leasing was carried on in near surface workings from Commercial Gulch in the Old Jordan area. By careful selective mining an appreciable tonnage of gold oxidized ore in the vicinity of the Old Commercial tunnel was mined right up to grass roots and at the west boundary leasers mined lead-zinc ore by raising and winzing from this upper tunnel. This oreshoot is closely related to the Venard fissure striking north-south and nearly vertical; and extends southerly into the U.S. mine where it is called the Orphan Boy. In 1905, leasers of the Bingham Consolidated company trespassed and shipped ore on this fissure from U.S. ground, also this company mined the Commercial orebody over its boundary easterly into U.S. ground. Such trespassing was due to neglect in keeping up the surveying and mapping regularly. In early days the general policy of operating companies was to hire, by the day, a Deputy Mineral Surveyor who made rather infrequent surveys.

The Bingham Consolidated made an accounting to the USCo for the above trespasses after the engineers representing the respective companies made joint surveys and some sampling which along with the information from settlement sheets of certain shipments, enabled the management to agree upon a satisfactory settlement.

The Commercial mine is located in one of the most intensely mineralized parts of the Bingham district and in one of the most productive host rocks, the Commercial limestone. This limestone member is approximately _______ feet to _______ feet thick and it goes without saying that only a small fraction of its volume has been thoroughly prospected in the Commercial and adjoining US ground. However, according to Kennecott's plans and under the deed of July 23, 1948 Kennecott will probably remove the Commercial limestone from footwall to hanging wall over a length of ______ feet and on dip _____ feet in USCo ground by shovel operations in order to provide a safe slope plane for its benches and make available its deep ore by means of the pit system of mining. Under the above deed the USCo retains title to its ores with the right to mine such fissure and bedded ores without unreasonable interference. Therefore, one does not have to be optimistic to believe that this future shovel operation will disclose substantial tonnages of ore in the approximate ________ tons of material that Kennecott calculates will likely be moved from the _______ acres of U.S. Co's property in the expansion of its pit.

In the fall of 1909 Imer Pett was appointed General Manager of the Bingham Mines Company and with the resignation of James Creighton, General Superintendent John Bergh was appointed Superintendent of the Lark Mine and T.P. Billings hired as Engineer and Assayer.

In addition to the leasing operations then underway production was started on company account along with exploration and development work. On the Mascotte tunnel the Brooklyn crosscut had been driven from the Lark vein to a point on the footwall of the Jordan limestone and directly down dip of the White Lead winze orebody. From this point a drift at the footwall had been extended westerly approximately _____ feet. This work had disclosed four separate small showing of ore and the face in caved loose black limestone. So further extension of this Brooklyn drift was carried on in the footwall quartzite and crosscuts averaging 30 feet in length at intervals of about 300 feet, were driven to the lode. The crosscuts all disclosed the downward continuation of the Brooklyn oreshoot, predominantly copper sulphide. The most westerly of the crosscuts was directly in line with a projection of the Brooklyn incline from surface. Access to the old lower workings had been closed by caving, however the 800-1300, 1400, 1500 and 1600 levels had been surveyed and mapped by the Bingham Consolidated Company, but the maps of the early day mining here were destroyed and it [the burning] was rumored to have been done by the last superintendent of the Brooklyn Mining Company. From this Brooklyn drift, on the Mascotte tunnel, an incline raise was then driven upon the footwall of the lode approximately 400 feet to a connection with the 1600 level just west of the old Brooklyn incline. The first 300 feet of the raise disclosed continuous copper ore apparently enriched by a sooty looking chalcocite and the next 100 feet was in a lead orebody. As previously stated the Bingham Consolidated operations were directed principally for copper ore and by prospecting lead showings in the old stopes on the 1500 and 1600 levels approximately 100 railroad cars of lead ore averaging 25 per cent lead with appreciable amounts of gold and silver were mined. From the raise the 1700, 1800 and 1900 levels were extended southwesterly and northeasterly to the boundaries of the oreshoot. Also raises were made at regular intervals from the Brooklyn drift on the Mascotte tunnel to facilitate mining.

The Brooklyn oreshoot as developed on and above the Mascotte tunnel is approximately 800 feet wide, as measured along the strike, and averages from 5 to 30 feet thick. The lead ore was found in most part near the western boundary of the oreshoot. The shoot made on the footwall quartzite and had a pulverized altered limestone for a hanging-wall. The ground was very heavy requiring square sets with 5 foot posts instead of the standard 6 foot, and were closely lagged on top. Also, for safe mining and to avoid any loss of ore a stope comprised a panel four sets wide driven upon the footwall and the ore extracted from foot to hanging wall. Just as soon as the timber began to show weight a number of the posts were blasted to allow the stope to fill up from the loose hanging-wall and shortly the fill would be so compact that another panel could be started right alongside the filled stope.

Two winzes were sunk from the Mascotte tunnel level in the orebody at the footwall for lengths of 300 feet and levels at 100 foot intervals were extended to its boundaries. This work disclosed a downward continuation of the mineralization but it apparently passes through the secondary enrichment of copper which gives way to primary copper pyritic material that averages about eight tenths of one per cent copper and appreciable amounts of gold and silver. Lead ore was exploited to this low level occurring near the westerly edge of the orebody and indicating a definite trend downwards to the west. There appears to be a gradual narrowing of the lead ore at depth which was approximately 25 feet wide, along strike and eight feet thick on the 300 level. Also, here the lead was found in a hard white limestone while above the limestone is a dark colored soft altered material. At the easterly edge, the orebody at the 200 level which was the lowest here from the winze, the copper ore is about 30 feet thick with rather definite trend easterly. These lower levels disclose a very low grade pyritic material that carries excess silica, without known economic value, and in the vernacular of the miner named "Gutsite" between the lead and copper shoots. So these lower developments indicate that the orebody at depth assumes a form somewhat similar to two slightly diverging roots of a tooth.

By the use of flotation on the Utah Copper ores, the AS&R smelter did not require the tonnage of the pyritic copper material for fluxing Utah Copper concentrates as heretofore and consequently restricted such output from this mine. Also the boundary of the Ohio copper property was not far distant and the lead pipe on its trend would most likely cross into Ohio Company ground where a vertical boundary had been established between the Bingham Mines and Ohio Copper companies dated _____________. Two raises from stopes and a crosscut on the tunnel level were driven to test the limestone above the oreshoot to the hangingwall and the tunnel drift was extended westerly along the footwall disclosing a porphyry dike sill. This latter work all proved barren and taking into account the other conditions cited above, further development at this lower horizon did not appear favorable so work in the Brooklyn mine area was discontinued.

Concurrently with the Brooklyn mine operation from the Mascotte tunnel level, the three showings of lead ore disclosed in the Brooklyn drift northeast of the Brooklyn mine and directly down dip from the White Lead Winze orebody found on the Miner's Dream tunnel were exploited above the tunnel for variable distances. They are sinuous pipe-like deposits close to the footwall but in places the ore extends out into the Jordan limestone. Development of the most easterly one shows continuity up dip to the White Lead Winze and yielded a substantial tonnage of relatively high grade silver-lead. The other two orebodies in places were exhibited from the footwall to fifty feet out into the limestone but they are very irregular and costly to exploit, however in places, open up to good mineable size which is intriguing to the miner. However there is remaining in this area considerable virgin ground in this limestone which justifies further prospecting.

At the same time the Brooklyn drift was underway the Yosemite drift was extended southwesterly on the Mascotte tunnel level along the Lark-Yosemite veins. This extension started from a point where the Brooklyn crosscut intersects this vein and for the first ______ feet it discloses the continuation of the Yosemite No. 2 oreshoot. It then enters a sill-dike porphyry mass which extends to surface and in large part forms the southwest side of this oreshoot. The Yosemite drift was further advanced ______ feet in this porphyry to a point practically on line with a projection of the Yosemite No. 1 Incline and entered quartzite. The old Yosemite incline down 840 feet on the dip of the vein, was filled with water to the 700 level and while in the porphyry the Yosemite drift was practically dry but at the contact with quartzite the water poured out and in a short time had completely drained out the filled mine workings above a distance of about 1300 feet on a dip of 38 degrees and 30 minutes.

The Yosemite No. 1 Incline was then equipped at surface for hoisting and after an independent survey involving a long traverse both over surface and underground, sinking the Incline and raising from the Mascotte tunnel in the quartzite at 38° 30' was commenced and in the fall of 1912 a connection was made at the 1100 level of the incline. The raise approximately 1040 feet long connected practically on a perfect alignment with that of the incline and met practically the same slope plane of the sinking operation, thus avoiding any adjusting of timber or track.

All this work was to the account of the Yosemite Mines Company, a subsidiary of the Bingham Mines Company. The development of the Yosemite Mines property was then started both on the Lark-Yosemite vein and the Commercial limestone. The old 700 and 800 levels were reclaimed and extended on the Lark-Yosemite vein, northeasterly on the 700 to its intersection with the sill-dike of porphyry cited above and southwesterly on the 800 level to its intersection with the downward continuation of the Cluster lead oreshoot. This work disclosed that the Yosemite orebody, which was productive of high grade oxidized lead ore had given way to mostly a low grade copper pyritic sulphide ore containing an appreciable amount of gold and some silver below the ground water level.

On the 500 level from a crosscut near the west side of the incline a drift was driven northeasterly _______ feet, at the footwall of the Commercial limestone and disclosed for most of its length a narrow seam of lead sulphide which was exploited both above and below the level at places where the ore opened up. Such showings of ore appeared to be related to cross fissures but none that were developed showed sufficient continuity of ore to be profitably exploited.

From a new 1100 level of the Incline a crosscut was driven through the Lark-Yosemite vein to the footwall of the commercial limestone and drifts were extended both northeasterly and southwesterly. Toward the northeast a porphyry mass was encountered within ______ feet so drifting was discontinued and the drift toward the southwest was extended to a projection of the downward continuation of the Cluster oreshoot. This southwest drift in general follows the footwall of the commercial limestone but in places extends into the limestone due to faulting which is quite complex in the vicinity of the Cluster oreshoot.

The Cluster shoot was developed by raises from both the 800 and 1100 west drifts and yielded a substantial tonnage of lead ore, however its occurrence is very irregular and therefore was relatively costly to mine. Nevertheless the continuity of both the fissure and mineralization which largely extends into the footwall quartzite seemed to hold out hope that at some horizon a highly profitable replacement orebody would be found in this limestone which throughout the district is a very favorable host rock and here it appeared to have the same characteristics as those observed around many of the large orebodies in Bingham.

The above described work related to the Yosemite and Cluster mines was to the account of the Yosemite Mines company and financed by the Bingham Mines Company and such advances of money were secured by notes held by the latter company. Two large stockholders of the Yosemite Mines Company preferred to dispose of their stock rather than contribute their respective shares toward payment on the notes, so the Bingham Mines Company purchased their stock at a nominal sum which left a small minority of shares outstanding and widely scattered.

The results obtained from this latter Yosemite No. 1 operation even with the introduction of all possible economies was a return of approximately fifty cents from ore production for every dollar expended in the exploration and mining. The attempts to find a profitable orebody in the mine appeared futile so further work on the Yosemite Mines lodes were suspended and in _______ the property was sold at Sheriff's sale to the Bingham Mines Company and the Yosemite Mines Company dissolved.

The mine workings, however, were not to be a total loss because the southwest drift on the 1100 level could be used as a facility from which a crosscut was driven southeasterly to explore the Jordan limestone for a probable downward continuation of the Revere oreshoot. This crosscut commenced at the southwest end of the 1100 level and intersected first the Lark-Yosemite vein, disclosing a small lead orebody, second a bedding in the quartzite carrying pyrite about one foot thick, third a dike-sill of porphyry in the quartzite about _____ feet thick, fourth, the hanging-wall of the Jordan limestone, fifth the Revere fissure, disclosing high grade lead-zinc ore about four feet thick, sixth the footwall contact of the limestone with quartzite. It was noted here that the Jordan limestone had increased in thickness from about sixteen feet at surface to about ______ feet at this level.

The development of the orebody was then carried on at the level and its continuation above which appeared to justify the driving of a crosscut on the 800 level into the Jordan limestone. This crosscut disclosed similar structural conditions as those cut on the 1100 level except that the dike-sill of porphyry is practically topped, about 8 feet thick, and resulted in disclosing a continuation of the ore shoot. From the end of the 800 crosscut a drift was extended southwesterly ______ feet along the footwall of the limestone. The face discloses a glassy limestone mixed with pyrite and porphyry. Two small showings of lead ore were disclosed in the drift, one of which was prospected following a nearly vertical fissure westerly into the limestone in ore, about 3 inches thick to the face where a mass of porphyry cuts off both the fissure and the limestone. Also a raise was made on a weak mineralization at the footwall contact and connected with an old working that in early days was probably driven in early days from the Revere-Gladstone Incline. The orebody, a high grade lead zinc averaged about 20 feet thick from the 800 level upwards for about 50 feet where it gave way to a soft black altered limestone. There appears to remain a virgin block of Jordan limestone between the mine workings above the 800 level and the bottom workings of the old Revere mine, that has a good mining chance of being productive.

For the downward continuation of the Revere shoot a crosscut was driven from the Yosemite No. 1 Incline on the 1300 level, southeasterly in order to first connect with old workings of the Brooklyn mine. This crosscut first discloses the Lark-Yosemite vein, close to the incline, with pyritic material about 5 feet thick, second: quartzite, third: Jordan limestone and old Brooklyn mine stopes. From the crosscut a drift was extended southwesterly _____ feet in the limestone to an intersection with the Revere oreshoot, which here was as equally productive up to the 1100 as was found on the upper levels. This 1300 southwest drift cut through the dike-sill located about ____ feet northeast of the orebody.

All the production from the Revere oreshoot as described above was amenable to flotation and was shipped to the Tooele concentrator of the International Smelting Company.

Concurrently with the operations in the southwesterly portions of the Bingham Mines' Lark properties both stoping and development was going forward in the central and northeasterly portions from the Mascotte tunnel.

In the central portion the Lead Mine lead-silver oreshoot was developed and mined from the tunnel level up on the footwall contact of the Commercial limestone for approximately 600 feet on a dip of about 35 degrees to a level corresponding to the 700 level from surface where the oxidized zone was encountered. The oxidized lead ore was developed by raises driven about _____ feet above this level, but the ore pinched down to an unprofitable mining thickness, however from the 900 to the 700 the lead sulfides showed a marked enrichment of silver as compared to the production below. The Lead Mine oreshoot comprises a segregation of a copper sulphide ore and a lead-zinc ore. The pyritic copper orebody forms the northeasterly portion and the lead-zinc orebody the southwesterly portion and their occurrences are such as to easily permit their mining as separate products. From the Mascotte tunnel up to the 700 level a dike-sill porphyry mass forms the southwest edge of the lead ore.

The pyritic copper orebody of the Lead Mine oreshoot in the sulphide zone is much larger than the lead-zinc portion, but in most part too low grade for profitable mining. However the Bingham Consolidated with its pyritic smelter at Bingham Junction had pretty well blocked it out, so the Bingham Mines Company merely carried on a selective mining of the occasional plums of profitable ore. However, at about the 700 level the low grade copper pyritic material gave way to a gold-silver siliceous ore which was mined up to a connection with the old 4th level of the mine from surface.

An attempt was made to sink a winze in the lead-zinc orebody from the tunnel but on account of water and loose ground it was discontinued at a depth of about 75 feet. Thereupon almost directly underneath, a projection down dip of the Lead Mine oreshoot, the Sampson incline, collared on the Mascotte tunnel, was sunk on the Lark vein for the development of the Sampson and Yosemite No. 2 oreshoots at depth and crosscuts therefrom at the 100, 200 and 300 levels developed the downward continuation of the Lead Mine oreshoot.

Also in this central area the Sampson and Yosemite No. 2 oreshoots on the Lark Yosemite vein were developed and mined out from the tunnel level up to connections with the early day workings driven from the Sampson and Yosemite No. 2 inclines, which were collared at the Sampson and Yosemite No. 2 tunnels respectively.

Stoping and development in the northeasterly portion of the Lark property by the Bingham Mines was largely confined to the Lark vein. Here emphasis was applied to mining and developing the lead-silver ores disclosed by the extensive work done by the Bingham Consolidated on and above the Mascotte tunnel along with some selective mining of copper ores. Also, the Mascotte tunnel was extended northeasterly beyond a fault and disclosed a new oreshoot and a flexing of the Lark vein from a northeasterly to a northwesterly course. Close to the center of flexure an incline raise, designated as No. 12, was driven on the Lark vein to surface. This incline was equipped at surface for hoisting and lowering operations and at intervals of 100 feet up a distance of 500 feet in the incline; beginning at the tunnel level, drifts were driven northeasterly then gradually around the trough trough formed by the flexure to northwesterly along the Lark vein in the oreshoot. From this 500 level to surface the raise discloses a bedded fissure vein sparsely mineralized at the base of the Lark limestone. However, a porphyry flow that covers to relatively shallow depths, portions of the sedimentary rocks in the northeasterly area was disclosed in the hanging-wall of the vein at about _____ feet above the Mascotte tunnel. And as the raise was advanced the porphyry gradually approaches the footwall where near surface it practically lies on the footwall contact of the vein.

For the development, at depth, of the various oreshoots on the Lark vein the No. 2 East and No. 4 West Inclines, ______ feet apart, were sunk simultaneously to depths of 350 and 500 feet respectively on a dip of about 30 degrees. At intervals of 100 feet drifts were extended both northeasterly and southwesterly along the vein. This work was highly satisfactory in not only showing the persistence of the ore but indicated a gradually greater thickness of the Lark limestone with a corresponding greater thickness of ore. Also there was no diminution of values apparent as depth was gained and it was becoming quite obvious that there was less oxidation of the ore and less of the fine carbonaceous material mixed in the vein.

Considerable test work, both in the laboratory and pilot plants had been done for a solution to economically treat the Lark vein lead-zinc ore found on and above the tunnel level but without satisfactory results which were attributed to the presence of oxidation and carbonaceous matter. These discoveries at depth altered the whole complexion of affairs and changed the dubious prospects, on account of the experience in the southwesterly area, that is the Brooklyn and Yosemite No. 1 Mine, into an assured long and profitable life to the Lark Mine.

In the area northeast of the Lead Mine, which is located in Copper Gulch, early day mining and subsequent leasing operations had disclosed at surface three small but rich deposits of oxidized lead ore at the footwall of and out into the Commercial limestone, one of which is the Richmond. However the ore gave out at shallow depths and subsequent deeper development work, principally on the 640 level of the Dalton No. 2 incline and on the Mascotte tunnel, failed to discover continuations of these deposits. But, prompted by an old map that showed a raise from the 640 level driven on what appeared to be on a projection of the Richmond orebody, the Bingham Mines Company decided to take a look. So, from the 1070 level, which is about 250 feet above the Mascotte tunnel and on the Lark vein a raise at about 60 degrees was driven through the hanging-wall quartzite into the Commercial limestone and connected with the 640 level near the bottom of the old raise and a little prospecting here disclosed an oxidized lead orebody on a bedding of this limestone, about 20 feet below the hangingwall quartzite. This orebody was about 30 feet wide and 5 feet thick and averaged about 30 percent lead. The ore pinched out in a short distance above the old 640 level, then a crosscut was driven from the raise at a lower elevation and intersected a downward continuation of the lead orebody in the sulphide zone where it had pinched down to about eight inches thick. However raises from the lower crosscut at short distances entered the oxidized body of lead ore which yielded an appreciable profit from the venture. This lower crosscut, before reaching the lead deposit, passes through a siliceous orebody of oxidized copper averaging 2 percent and 40 feet thick but there were no accompanying gold or silver and the net smelter returns from a trial shipment showed that the material could not be profitably mined at the price then prevailing for copper.

During the Bingham Consolidated period of operations a wildcat promoter, named Lamson appeared on the Lark scene and located a larger number of claims on the slope northeast of the Dalton and Lark mine which was covered by a porphyry flow. He even extended locations plastered upon patented claims and prior locations so promiscuously as to have many of the recorded positions of their discoveries on already patented ground. Lamson then drove a tunnel, with its portal on the south side of a small gulch about ____ miles northwest of the portal of the Mascotte tunnel. This tunnel, named the Bingham tunnel, was driven southwesterly about 4000 feet [Wilbur's note: Too much, 1250'] entirely in the porphyry flow and failed to discover mineralization in sufficient quantities which would even classify the ground as mineral ground. Later Simon Bamberger hired Jim Stark to homestead the property as agricultural ground. Mr. Stark and his wife established residence on the ground and lived there the required time to obtain title under the Homestead Act. However his application was contested by a Mr. Evans who had acquired the Lamson interest. But after a hearing the Land Office decided the land to be in the category of agricultural and not mineral. Therefore Mr. Bamberger obtained title to the ground which incidentally also carries the mineral rights. This tunnel developed a small stream of percolating water and was quite isolated, so during the Prohibition period a boot-legger found a profitable use of the tunnel where he erected a still for making whiskey.

The Bingham Mines Company to complete a job started by the Bingham Consolidated made a surface survey to establish the positions of the posts on the ground which marked the exact locations of its mining claims and those adjacent thereto. Also it located the outcrops by survey of the Lark-Yosemite vein, Jordan limestone and Commercial limestone and undertook to determine the extra-lateral rights held by the respective mining claims by virtue of holding the apex of the lode. Although the early day locator endeavored to fix his location to best cover his lode, such a location was hardly ever perfect due in part to the topography which changed the strike of the outcrop from that of the lode and other physical conditions. Prior to May 1872, the end-lines of a claim were not required to be parallel and subsequent to that date, although a patented claim might have parallel end-lines, but the apex of the lode is found to enter through one end-line but pass out a side-line of a claim. Also two adjoining claims of different ownership might cover the apex of a lode the entire lengths, but where they adjoin their lines are not coincident. These are just a few of the complexities inherent with early day locations and the consolidation of many such locations of different ownerships into a large group as the Lark property.

In the early days the locator of a claim was generally on the ground working his claim as staked out by him and had covered his lode to the best of ability. Also, in recording his claim the lengths and courses given in most cases were not from actual instrument surveys and of course would not correspond to the location of the posts as found on the ground. In a description of a claim for filing it was required that the locator establish the location of the posts as found on the ground. In a description of a claim for filing it was required that the locator establish the location of his discovery with reference to some conspicuous natural object, but in Bingham many of the early locations witness its discovery as a certain distance on a certain course from the northeast corner of the "Blood and Guts Saloon" or the southwest corner of Addie O'Neil's honkey tonk. But an abstractor in running down the title generally finds that the saloon was burned down and the Honkey Tonk and has a new "Madame" and called "Rose's Chicken Ranch."

To further complicate matters the early day Deputy Mineral Surveyors in their surveys for patents were not required to exercise the accuracies necessary to have the description in the patent correspond, within a reasonable error, to the position of the patent posts as established on the ground.

Therefore, this lack of uniformity in the early day locations and subsequent patents which cover the apex of a lode produced segments of the vein on its dip, which were not held by extra-lateral rights of any of the claims that held the apex. So the Bingham Mines Company, in order to realize the full potentialities of its lodes on their dip proceeded to locate and patent all fractions of open ground within and adjacent to its Lark holdings and also acquire by purchase adjoining properties and individual claims at reasonable prices.

For many years in the Bingham district the limestone members such as the Jordan and Commercial were regarded as coming under the definition of a lode as understood by miners and used in the acts of Congress of 1866 and 1872 which established our mining laws. The miners recognized that the limestone was a favorable host rock for ore, and claims were located not only to cover fissures on their various strikes but also along the strike of the limestone members. In fact in the Lark area where there is considerable less surface evidence of cross fissures than found in the heart of Bingham, the mining claims from very early days were nearly all located along the strike of the limestone members. In laying out these claims the early day miners had no knowledge of a geological scientific definition of a lode. He was controlled by the evidences of alteration or mineralization found and observed at surface and the experience in the district exploiting such showings. Thereupon the miner decided which formation within which he could expect to find ore and made his location accordingly along the strike of the limestone and not out of which he could not expect to find ore.

The first recorded discovery of ore in Bingham, 17 September 1863, the Jordan claim, the longest lode claim that is patented in the United States, was located for 5200 feet in length to cover the Jordan limestone on its strike. The bulk of Bingham's early day production came from the limestones, although these limestone members occurring as intercalated beds in quartzite, constitute a very small part of the great deposit of sedimentary rocks in the Bingham district. It's true, however, that in the main Bingham area there is considerable fissuring crossing the strata at various angles and that are mineralized for some extent in the great masses of porphyry and quartzite beds. These cross fissures are classified as fissure veins but more often lose their identity at their intersections with bedded replacement orebodies in the limestone.

In the case of United States Mining Company versus Lawson, decided by the Circuit Court of Appeals, the court says: "A careful examination and consideration of the evidence clearly convinces us that the stratum of limestone constitutes a single broad vein or lode of mineral bearing rock extending from the quartzite on one side to the quartzite on the other." This case involved a dispute over the ownership of valuable orebodies in the Jordan limestone which apexed on the property of the United States Mining Company in the Old Jordan area and involved the following claims: Kempton, Jordan Extension, Ashland, Northern Light, Grizzly, Fairview, and Ashland.

The United States Mining Company was the Plaintiff and Lawson the Defendant and the dispute was decided in favor of the Plaintiff. It was bitterly fought including witnesses, Enos Wall, Sam Neill, Charles Legg, Mr. Morehouse and others for the Defendant and Bert Holden, W.S. Keyes, O.A. Palmer and others for the Plaintiff. Enos Wall, one of the defendants and Bert Holden for the plaintiff, two of the most rugged individuals found in the Bingham district, proved worthy opponents. This lawsuit, so-called "Kempton lease" resulted in such ill-will as to become vindictive, on the part of the losing party and no stones were left unturned to embarrass the United States Company in its mining operations. In one instance timber was piled up and a fire started in a working of the defendant that connected with the US mine where the air currents were such as to carry smoke into US mine workings. A bulkhead was constructed to shut out the smoke but the two timbermen and general foreman were overcome and had to be carried to surface.

Then there was the Montana case which involved a dispute over the ownership of orebodies in the Jordan limestone, located in the Giant Chief fault area near the junction of Galena and Bear gulches with main Bingham Canyon. Again Enos Wall and Bert Holden of the United States Company were opponents in the dispute, but the US Company was successful in again establishing the Jordan limestone as the lode and by virtue of its apex on US ground and the extra-lateral rights conferred by the laws of the United States in such cases, the ores and minerals found within said lode belong to the US Company.

However, there continued protracted litigation in connection with the US areas along the Jordan limestone and almost yearly the US Company was called upon to answer one or a number of complaints, but always resulted favorably to the United States Company. The so-called Kempton lease, began in 1901, was taken through the circuit court and through the Court of Appeals, but did not end until 1920 upon the death of Enos Wall and subsequent acquisition by the USCo of his properties that have been involved in lawsuits.

Generally speaking, mining lawsuits resulted in losses to both participants, but with all the litigation, the USCo came out millions of dollars to the good.

It should be mentioned here that included in the nine bases for the court's conclusion in the "Kempton case" was the similarity, so ably presented by witnesses of the USCo, that the stratum of Jordan limestone had with the great ore deposit in the limestone on Ruby Hill at Eureka, Nevada, the ownership of which was in dispute resulting in the famous lawsuit--Eureka Consolidated Mining company versus Richmond Mining Company. Judge Field sat in this case and decreed in favor of the Eureka Consolidated Mining Company establishing the limestone zone in Ruby Hill, one lode, a broad lode, with a quartzite footwall and a clay seam or shale as a hanging-wall, with extra-lateral rights conveyed to the Eureka Consolidated Mining Company by their respective patents from the United States holding the apices.

This decision of the Eureka case was the first of its kind, the establishment of the Broad Lode and has been a precedent generally called upon in case of a dispute to support one contending that he possesses a broad lode and incidentally the Richmond and Eureka Con companies were consolidated as the Richmond-Eureka Mining company, the majority stock of which was acquired in 1905 by the US Mining company.

Turning to Lark, the eastern part of the Bingham district we find the northeasterly extension of the Jordan and Commercial limestone with the addition of the Lark bedded vein related to a thin lens of limestone, located between the above two strata and conforming in strike and dip to these members. The Lark vein has been traced on its southwesterly course for an uninterrupted length of about 11,000 feet, extending from Keystone Gulch on the east slope of the Oquirrh Mountains to upper Bingham Canyon just below Galena Gulch where it appears to be absorbed by the great Utah Copper porphyry stock. However, it is considered as quite possible that the Lark vein emerges from the western rim of the stock as the Yampa fissure vein of which the quartzite is the footwall and the Yampa limestone the hanging-wall.

On this Lark, or eastern slope of the Oquirrh Mountains, and lying above the Commercial limestone are bold outcrops of the following bedded veins in accordance with the order of their position in the stratigraphic column above this limestone: Mammoth, Weasel, Mayflower, Fortune, Sierra Grande and Winebago. These veins are each related to a thin lens of limestone intercalated with the immense mass of Bingham quartzite. The Fortune and Sierra Grande veins, however, occur at the footwall and hanging-wall respectively of the Fortuna sill of porphyry, which can be traced from the Utah Copper stock in upper Bingham northeasterly lower Bingham Canyon for a length of about 17,000 feet. Remnants of limestone are found in this sill and it is believed that at one time there existed a large stratum of limestone which was absorbed by the existing sill of porphyry.

Both at surface and underground there is a marked continuity of the limestones and bedded veins on strike and dip and there is a remarkable absence of crossfissuring, except at the western end approaching upper Bingham Canyon and at the extreme northeastern end in the vicinity of Keystone Gulch, which structurally is quite dissimilar to that found in the main part of Bingham. Therefore one can hardly find any prospecting outside of these limestones or bedded veins and miles of underground workings have been performed at various horizons from surface along these bedded veins and throughout the entire thickness of the larger Jordan and Commercial limestones, with the expectation of finding ore.

The early day miners and subsequent operators considered these bedded veins and limestones as the lodes with extra-lateral rights conveyed by the respective patents from the United States or by locations holding the apices. With a deep conviction of such extra-lateral rights they exploited their respective lodes on the dip over their side-lines and underneath neighboring properties.

On the Lark side the Brooklyn Mining Company exploited its oreshoots, from surface in the Jordan limestone down dip underneath the property of the Yosemite Mining Company and continued beyond at greater depth underneath the Cluster Mining Company's property in the exercise of its extra-lateral rights.

The Yosemite Mining Company exercised extra-lateral rights on the Lark Yosemite bedded fissure vein at depth underneath the Cluster Mining Company's property.

The Revere Mining Company exercised extra-lateral rights at depth on its oreshoots in the Jordan limestone downdip underneath the properties of the Keynote Mining Company and the Yosemite Mining Company.

The Sampson Mining Company exercised extra-lateral rights on its oreshoots down dip on the Lark-Yosemite vein underneath the properties of the Yosemite No. 2 Mining Company and the Lead Mine Company.

The Yosemite No. 2 Mining Company exercised extralateral rights on its oreshoots down dip on the Lark-Yosemite vein underneath the property of the Lead Mine Company.

The Dalton-Lark Mining and Milling Company exercised extra-lateral rights on the Lark-Yosemite vein down dip underneath the properties of the Richmond Mining company and the Dalton No. 2 group owned by "Dusty" Rhodes and associates.

The Bingham Mines Company exercised extra-lateral rights on the Lark-Yosemite vein down dip underneath the properties of the Mammoth Mining Company, the Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company, and the Butter-Hays group.

The Mayflower Mining Company exercised extralateral rights on the Mayflower bedded vein down dip underneath the Fortuna Mining Company's property.

The Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company exercised extra-lateral rights on the Mayflower bedded vein down dip underneath the property of the Ohio Copper Company of Utah.

The above demonstrates how completely the early day miners and companies each recognized that the Lark-Yosemite and Mayflower bedded veins and the Jordan limestone were considered as constituting lodes, as that term is used in the acts of Congress of 1866 and 1872, under which the owner of the apex possesses extra-lateral rights. The extra-lateral rights as noted above were not disputed by the owner of the surface underneath, except in one case, that by the Keynote Mining Company. And this was decided in favor of the Revere Mining Company which proved to the satisfaction of the court that the orebody in dispute in the Jordan limestone underneath the surface of the Keynote claim of the Keynote Company apexed on the Revere claim of the Revere Mining Company and constituted a lode with extra-lateral rights.

In 19___ the Utah Consolidated Mining Company and the Utah Apex Mining Company respectively, owners of large producing properties adjoining and located in Carr Fork of the Bingham district, engaged in lawsuits over orebodies valued in millions of dollars. These involved two trials, the trial of the Highland boy case and following the trial in which four cases were tried together.

Both trials were held in the United States District Court for the District of Utah before Judge Tillman Johnson. The companies produced as witnesses the best scientific experts, all of them of large experience and extensive attainments in the fields of mining and geology. Also they were represented by lawyers with national reputations, especially experienced in mining laws as related to Apex cases.

In the first trial the Utah Apex Mining Company was the Plaintiff and the Utah Consolidated Mining Company the Defendant.

The defendant had entered beneath the surface of the property of the plaintiff and had removed valuable ores and justified its action by claiming such ores were within a broad lode apexing within the boundaries of the mining property of the defendant and by virtue of the extra-lateral rights conferred to the claims holding the apex the ores belonged to the defendant.

The preponderance of proof was upon the defendant. both parties produced a great array of maps and models.

The Utah Consolidated and early day mining from surface had mined a large ore deposit, made up of a number of closely associated and related ore bodies, from a segment of the Highland boy limestone, which segment apparently was enclosed between a sheet of porphyry and a great mass of porphyry. This Highland Boy ore deposit was admitted by the Utah Apex to be a broad lode and such admission was, no doubt, a recognition of a similarity that this ore deposit had with the Eureka Consolidated ore deposit and the USCo ore deposit in the Jordan limestone, both of which the courts had concluded were broad lodes. Also it was generally accepted by both parties that the Jordan limestone occupied the same position in the stratigraphical column as the Highland Boy limestone. Although now widely separated by an immense mass of porphyry they were one and the same stratum as originally deposited as sedimentary rocks.

The ore deposit in dispute however was the so-called Leadville ore body,, in the Highland boy limestone apparently related to the Leadville fissure, which had been and was being mined by the utah Consolidated Company underneath the surface of the Utah Apex Company property upon its theory that the limestone is one broad lode and that the Leadville orebody is a part of the Highland Boy ore deposit conceded as a broad lode.

Lying between this admitted broad lode and the Leadville orebody is a part of the Highland Boy limestone, about 2000 feet in extent, in which very little prospecting and development work is done. Also, the limited work done shows this intervening portion of limestone to be but slightly fissured or broken, unaltered and unmineralized and dissimilar to the limestone in either the Leadville or Highland Boy ore bodies. This was not contended by either party and was plainly shown by the maps and models. Therefore the Utah Apex Company asserted that this undeveloped limestone is a body of barren limestone breaking the continuity of the orebodies.

Judge Johnson decided in favor of the Utah Apex Company based upon his opinion that the broad lode, that is the Highland Boy ore deposit, apexing within the mining claims of the Utah Consolidated Company does not include within it the intervening barren limestone or the Leadville ore body.

The Utah Consolidated Mining Company, prior to the trial, had completed an agreement with the Utah Metals and Tunnel Company, owners of adjoining mining claims, which enabled the Utah Consolidated to more completely cover the apex of the Highland Boy limestone. Also, the Utah Consolidated Company prior to the trial, had purchased the property of the Yampa Mining and Smelting Company whose mining claims adjoin those of both it and the Utah Apex Company.

The second trial between these two companies involved four cases that were tried together immediately following the trial of the Highland boy case, but in this trial the Utah Consolidated Mining Company is the Plaintiff and the Utah Apex Mining Company the Defendant. Here the Utah Consolidated Company endeavored to establish the Yampa limestone as a broad lode. This limestone, from 200 to 400 feet in thickness occupies the same position in the stratigraphical column as the Commercial limestone but are widely separated by the same immense mass of porphyry separating the Jordan and Highland Boy limestones.

The Yampa limestone claimed by the Plaintiff as a broad lode apexed on the property of the Utah Consolidated and the orebodies in dispute found in the Yampa limestone beneath the surface of the mining of the Utah Apex were claimed by the Utah Consolidated by virtue of the extra-lateral rights conferred by the laws of the United States.

The Utah Apex denied that the Yampa limestone is a broad lode and claimed the disputed ore bodies, because it was the owner of the mining claims within which the orebodies are found. And Utah Apex Company claimed that the disputed ore bodies to be within a vein, the Petro fissure, that apexed within the boundaries of mining claims owned by it and by virtue of the extra-lateral rights owned the disputed orebodies.

The Yampa limestone had been mined by the Utah Consolidated and its predecessors along its strike about one mile and down dip about one-half mile. The ore bodies developed by the Utah Consolidated and its predecessors consist of a flat sheet of ore with an average thickness of about six feet and lies mainly between the quartzite as a footwall and the limestone as a hanging-wall. This flat sheet of ore on its dip divides into two branches, one of which extends towards the ore bodies in dispute. In the neighborhood of the disputed ore bodies the flat sheet turn over to nearly vertical. The Utah Apex Company conceded that this flat sheet of ore is a fissure vein with the quartzite as a foot-wall and the Yampa limestone as a hanging-wall.

Commencing near surface and for a short distance below there are a number of stopes in the limestone above the flat sheet of ore which are associated with this flat sheet. But the limestone above and overlying this flat sheet of ore in the country intervening between the ore bodies in dispute and the local occurrences of stopes in the body of limestone near surface is, except to a very limited extent, undeveloped and unprospected and so far as known, is practically unmineralized, unaltered, unbroken limestone.

The Court concluded that the Utah Consolidated had not by a preponderance of evidence proved its contention that the Yampa limestone is a broad lode but agreed that the flat sheet of ore is a vein with extra-lateral rights beneath the surface of the defendant, the Utah Apex Company.

The court refrained from making a decision as to whether or not the disputed orebodies are within or a part of the Petro fissure and subsidiary fissures.

The Utah Apex Mining Company was the Plaintiff and the Utah Consolidated Mining Company the Defendant in another case tried along with those above described. The Utah Apex Company claimed the Leadville ore bodies in the Highland Boy limestone, that were litigated in the Highland Boy case, by virtue of it holding the apex, within the Charles A. Dana its mining claim, of the Dana fissure with extra-lateral rights.

The court decided that the Utah Apex Company had failed by a preponderance of evidence to prove that the Dana fissure above and the Leadville fissure below were identical and therefore entered judgement for the defendant.

In the USCo cases whereby the Jordan limestone was decided as a broadlode and the practice followed in the exercise of extra-lateral rights, heretofore mentioned on the Lark side of the Bingham district, were all confirmed by the decisions of the court in the Utah Consolidated and Utah Apex cases.

However, the USCo and Lark operations and its predecessors followed their orebodies down dip from surface and the continuity of the mineralization into and underneath the surface of an adjoining property was not broken. The court in its conclusions of the Utah Consolidated and Utah Apex appears to have given considerable weight to the fact that the Utah Consolidated was unable to show a continuity of mineralization of its conceded and established lodes with the disputed lodes. Also the court did not give any credence to the contention of the Utah Consolidated that the intervening and undeveloped limestone is good prospecting ground in which a miner may work with reasonable expectation of finding ore anywhere, and that it is a part of the broad lode such as the Highland Boy ore deposit and the flat sheet of ore at the base of the Yampa limestone and closely associated orebodies near surface within this limestone, respectively conceded as a broad lode and fissure vein. This conclusion by the court in some respects controverts the opinions held by early day miners and present day operators in that they recognize the limestones in the Bingham district as the most favorable host rock because it has been proven the most productive, except for the disseminated copper ore in the Utah Copper porphyry stock. And in support of these opinions the early day operators performed miles of development work within the limestone, and not outside them, with the expectation of finding ore, also the present day operators perform miles of development work yearly within the intercalated beds of limestone in all parts of the district in search of ore, while in the great masses of quartzite the work performed in the nature of facilities as means of way to the objectives in search of ore in the limestones or mineralized fissures.

The Utah Consolidated Company as a result of the Highland Boy case made an accounting to the Utah Apex Company for the value of the ore it mined and appropriated from the Leadville ore bodies underneath the surface of the mining property of the Utah Apex Company. The sum was large and the expense of the suits costly to both parties. The International Mining and Smelting Company financed the payment due the Utah Apex Company and also the Utah Consolidated Company's expense of the trials. This finally resulted in the International getting title to all the Utah Consolidated property in ______.

Then in 1908 the Utah Apex Company was merged with the International Mining and Smelting Company consolidating the properties, thus avoiding further disputes over the ownership of orebodies, a situation that could have developed in the future between the companies regardless of the conclusions reached by the court in the law suits heretofore described.

In both the Highland Boy and Utah Apex mines the mining operations had attained such depths as _______ and _______ from surface, which was becoming increasingly costly at depth. The ores and the waste that could not be economically used for stope fills had to be hoisted considerable distances to adit-tunnels No. _____ at the Highland Boy, and the Parnell at the Utah Apex for transportation to surface in Carr Fork, or to surface at the collar of the Rood shaft. The Highland Boy ores, once at surface, were transported to the Tooele Smelter over an aerial bucket tramway line, constructed in 1912, and divided into three sections on account of the terrain traversed. It extends from a headhouse in Carr Fork at the ore bins at the portal of No.7 tunnel of the Highland Boy mine upwards in a northwest direction to the ridge at an elevation of _______ feet sea-level datum thence downwards along Pine Canyon to the smelter located at its mouth at an elevation of about _______ a distance of four miles. This new tramway providing direct transportation of ores from mine to smelter replaced the old method by aerial bucket tramway from mine to bins in Lower Bingham a distance of two and three-tenths miles, and the reloading into railroad cars which were hauled about ____ miles to the smelter, resulting in appreciable savings. The Utah Apex ores were transported through the Parnell Tunnel to surface bins constructed along siding tracks of the Bingham and Garfield railroad on the southwest side of Carr Fork, thence hauled to the Tooele smelter a distance of ______ miles.

The mining operations, which had reached a depth of _____ feet, were confronted with a water problem of increasing quantities and heads. This required large capital expenditures for adequate pumping and hoisting equipment and supplementary facilities.

Both properties had exceptionally fine production records of copper, lead, and lead-zinc ores and were equipped with modern milling facilities, one located at the Tooele smelter and the Utah Apex mill was located near the portal of the Parnell tunnel on the northwest side of Carr Fork.

The orebodies are large but at depth in the primary zone are lower in grade and with increasing costs economies were introduced, the most important being the driving of the Elton tunnel, which in large part eliminated pumping and hoisting costs and provided a reduction of transportation costs especially for the Utah Apex ores. This tunnel has its portal at the west base of the Oquirrh Mountains about _______ feet west of the Tooele Mill and Smelter. It starts at an elevation of ______ feet above sea level datum and was driven in a _______ direction. The first _______ feet is in a gravel bed which disclosed remnants of an old burial grounds believed to be used many years ago by a tribe of Indians. The tunnel connects with [the Rood Shaft and the Utah Apex workings in Carr Fork.] The water flowing from the tunnel is used for irrigation of truck farms in the general area.

By 1919 the Bingham Mines Company had been successful in retiring the bonded indebtedness of $1,500,000.00 and had commenced paying dividends to its stock-holders besides purchasing the Victoria mine in 1917 located in Eureka, Utah and adjoining its Eagle and Bluebell property. The development work in the Lark mine had shown a persistence of the various oreshoots at depth and with a feeling of optimism for the future of the Bingham district and to more fully realize the potentialities of its lodes at depth the company stepped up its expansion policy by acquiring the following adjoining properties and control of the Montana-Bingham Mining Company:

Date Acquired


No. of Mining Claims


Reindeer Mining Company


3- 6-1924

Hays and Butters Group



N.G. Garrad Group



Keynote Mining Company


10- 7-1927

Badger Mining Company


6- 8-1929

Pine Tree Mining & Milling Co.



Utah Copper Company



Chisholm Company



Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company deeded a certain described segment of the Lark-Yosemite vein underneath the surface of its Fortuna Group of mining claims.


In ______ the Bingham Mines acquired a controlling stock interest and about ninety per cent of the bond issue of the Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company.

Also on June 30, 1925 the Bingham Mines Company acquired the Ute Copper Company's group of 23 mining claims located in lower Bingham Canyon and a interest in the Dixon mine adjoining from Thomas Weir; and on July 21, 1925 purchased the other interest in the Dixon mine comprising four mining claims and three adjoining mining locations from Martha J. Watson.

On June 29, 1925 the Bingham Mines Company obtained a Sheriff's Certificate of sale of the property of the Yosemite Mines Company to satisfy a judgement and on March 1, 1927 secured a deed to the property comprising nine mining claims.

The Reindeer Mining Company's property purchased from ______ Cook, a Bingham blacksmith, comprises the Pride of the Valley claim and Reindeer fraction located just south of Keystone Gulch and covers a part of the apex of the Commercial limestone. It had no production; however, a shaft was sunk on the outcrop of the limestone at a depth of about 200 feet.

The Hays and Butters Group comprises the Agee and four other mining claims located at the top of Copper Gulch and extending northwesterly over the ridge to upper Bingham Canyon. At surface these claims disclose unmineralized porphyry and quartzite with an extension of the Weasel vein, a narrow bedded vein with quartzite walls. The Butters tunnel with its portal on the north slope of Copper Gulch developed this vein westerly for about 500 feet and disclosed only low grade copper pyritic material. [note: '? See about Claret'] However, beneath the surface of these claims at depth are the down dip extensions of the Jordan and Commercial limestones and Lark vein.

The N.G. Garrad groups comprises the Pearl Fraction and described parts of the Cunningham and Dederichs mining claims adjoining the Hays & Butters group and the Ohio Copper property. This group is located on the east slope of Upper Bingham Canyon and the surface discloses an unmineralized portion of the Utah Copper stock and quartzite. Nothing of importance is disclosed in the small amount of near surface work on the property however, beneath the surface at depth are the down dip extensions of the Jordan and Commercial limestones and the Lark vein.

The property of the Keynote Mining Company comprises the Keynote, Surprise and Keynote Extension mining claims located in the upper end of the southerly branch of Yosemite Gulch. On surface these claims disclose both the footwall and hanging-wall quartzite of the Jordan limestone and unmineralized porphyry. The property was developed in very early days by a crosscut tunnel from the bottom of the gulch which cut the downward dip of the Jordan limestone and a small irregular lead orebody underneath the surface of the Keynote claim. However, this company was enjoined from mining the orebody by the Revere Mining Company that claimed extra-lateral rights by virtue of possessing the apex of the lode within its Revere mining claim.

The Badger Mining Company's property [which] included the Badger mining claim and six other contiguous claims located in Yosemite Gulch and extending northeasterly along the north slope of the gulch, covers the outcrop of the Lower Intermediate limestone, which is ____ feet stratigraphically below the Jordan limestone. This property in early days was developed by two incline shafts from surface, one was sunk about 500 feet on the dip of the limestone at the footwall quartzite and the other incline with its collar just above was sunk on the dip of a bedding just underneath the hanging wall quartzite of this Intermediate limestone. There is some alteration and rather feeble mineralization at surface where the inclines were started and [?] tight, narrow crossfissure containing lead-zinc extending between the two inclines. There has been a small production of lead-zinc from this work and in recent years a lessee shipped a small tonnage of low grade lead-zinc ore mined from the upper incline of the two.

The Pine Tree Mining and Milling Company's property comprises the Daisy and three other mining claims, all contiguous and located at the top of Midas Gulch and extending to the ridge on the east side of lower Bingham Canyon. These claims at surface disclose quartzite and cover an extension of the Manefay vein, a narrow bedded vein with quartzite walls. The development work done in early days, is very shallow and disclose only feeble mineralization. Also, at surface a strong fault fissure with considerable alteration of the vein material was exploited in early days to a shallow depth but apparently was not productive.

The Cluster Fraction is a small acreage between the Cluster claim of the Yosemite Mines Company and the Hays and Butters Group, located on the east slope of upper Bingham Canyon. At surface the up-canyon and unmineralized extension of the Utah Copper stock is disclosed. The Utah Copper sold only the underground rights and retained title to the surface and to a depth of 50 feet.

The Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company in the early 1920's had exercised extra-lateral rights on its Mayflower vein underneath the surface of the Ruth mining claim of the Ohio Copper Company of Utah and had mined out a substantial tonnage of good copper ore from the Mayflower oreshoot underneath this Ohio claim. Although the Montana Bingham held the apex of this vein and oreshoot and had by underground workings shown, beyond a doubt, the continuity of the vein and oreshoot to extend from surface into the Ruth claim within the projection of lines which by the statute there was conferred extra-lateral rights to certain Montana Bingham mining claims, the Ohio Company disputed Montana bingham's ownership of the ores under the Ohio surface.

The Ohio Company claimed that the Mayflower vein was an extension of its Alls Well vein that apexed on Ohio property. The stratigraphic column suggests such a possibility, but a fault somewhere between the workings in the two mines was necessary to explain such a correlation and to prove its existence was not easy.

A number of conferences between representatives of the Bingham Mines Company and the Ohio Copper were held and they developed that the Ohio Copper Company planned deep development in its property which would explore the Jordan and Commercial limestones and westerly end of the Lark-Yosemite vein on their dip beneath the surface of the Ohio Copper mining claims. However, the Ohio company was reluctant to proceed without a vertical boundary agreement between it and the Bingham Mines Company. The only common boundary between the two company's mining properties was located on the westerly end of the Bingham Mines Lark group and along the compromise line which divides the Cunningham and Dederichs claims into the two parts respectively owned by the two parties. Also the Bingham Mines Company was aware of a segment of the Lark vein beneath the surface of a portion of the Fortuna group of the Montana Bingham Company that probably contained orebodies whose ownership could possibly be disputed.

Therefore to avoid expensive litigation and so that each company could proceed unhampered with its plans, the following agreements and deeds were made:

_________________________ between the Ohio Copper Company and the Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company: The Ohio Copper recognized the extra-lateral rights on the Mayflower vein as claimed by the Montana Bingham and described by projecting a compromise line parallel to the Enoch northeasterly end-line on a ______ course from a point that designated the crossing of the northwesterly side-line of this Enoch claim by the apex of the Mayflower vein. The agreement concedes to the Montana Bingham all ores in its five named veins lying easterly of the described compromise line, and established a vertical boundary.

_________________________ between the Bingham Mines Company and the Ohio Copper Company. This established a vertical boundary described and confined to the common boundary of very short extent then existing between the mining properties of the two companies.

Deed, dated 1-15-1927 - by Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company to the Bingham Mines Company a described part of the Lark-Yosemite vein.

The Montana Bingham Consolidated Mining Company was organized in 1910 as a successor to the Bingham Butte Mining Company successor to the Puritan ___________. The property comprised of four contiguous mining claims is located on the east slope of Bingham Canyon extending from McGuire Gulch southerly up to Ely Gulch just opposite from Carr Fork. The formation high in the stratigraphical column is typical Bingham quartzite highly stained with iron oxide and small showings of alteration along some of the beddings spotted with gold which have been prospected to a very limited extent. A strong dike of porphyry extends from the Utah Copper stock in a northerly direction the entire length of the property. This dike in early days was explored by two tunnels, a higher then a lower, driven from Ely Gulch. Occasional small pipes of oxidized copper ore were disclosed.

When the D&RG Railroad company in 1906 built its "High Line" to serve the Utah Copper open pit it acquired easements on the surface in Ely Gulch for its Round House and track facilities, and the location was called "Cuprum Heights", which was about ____ feet above the canyon floor and reached by winding stairs starting back of the City Hall. The Bingham Butte then transferred its mining operations down canyon to McGuire Gulch and drove a tunnel, first called the Miller or Hubbard tunnel and now known as the Montana Bingham Tunnel. This tunnel with its portal in McGuire Gulch is driven on a southeasterly course cross-cutting the strata. At about _____ feet the tunnel intersects the Cleveland fissure and the porphyry dike. Exploration of the porphyry and fissure disclosed small pods of copper ore and low-grade dissemination of copper minerals in the porphyry. At about _____ feet and ______ feet the tunnel intersects the Copper Glance and Manefay fissure veins respectively and each showing a seam of copper sulphide about six inches thick. These are bedded fissure veins dipping northwest at about _____ degrees. They are quite persistent on dip and both have been developed at surface and in near-surface workings but failed to disclose profitable orebodies.

By 1913 the tunnel on its southeasterly course had passed through the property of the Montana Bingham Consolidated Company which organized in 1910, succeeded the Bingham Butte Mining Company. And in 1913 agreements were made between the Montana Bingham and the Bingham Congor Copper and Bingham Amalgamated companies adjoining properties of the latter two adjoin the Montana Bingham on the south and east. These agreements provided for extending the Montana Bingham tunnel into the latter two properties by the Montana Bingham company and the transportation of ores and waste with their handling at surface by the Montana Bingham company at specified rates. The Montana Bingham also received about ___ one sixth interest in the outstanding stock of the United Bingham Copper Mining Company which was organized as the successor of the Bingham Amalgamated Company.

The tunnel advance into the Bingham Congor intersects the Winebago limestone which here is about 30 feet thick and very hard with a quartzite hangingwall and a thin porphyry sill as a footwall. At the contact of the limestone and porphyry are scattered showings of lead-zinc.

The Montana Bingham Company in order to finance its tunnel program issued bonds which were sold in large part along with a control of the outstanding common stock to Honolulu businessmen engaged in the production of sugar and pineapple. When faced with failure of developing profitable orebodies in the company's ground or in the Bingham Congor and United Bingham properties, the Honolulu people now directing the management in an effort to retrieve their losses acquired ______ options on the Valentine Scrip patent, located in Bingham Canyon, situated on the eastern slope of the Oquirrh range, lying between the Keystone and Copper Gulches and adjoining the properties of the United Bingham Congor and Bingham Mines Companies. Also the Montana Bingham had an option on the Tiewaukee mine.

The Tiewaukee mine adjoined the Montana Bingham property in Bingham Canyon on the north. It comprises ______ mining claims on the east slope of the canyon and at its floor extending from McGuire Gulch down canyon to the Winamuck Gulch. These claims are among the oldest locations and patents in the district. The formation is quartzite with intercalated beds of limestone near the top of the Bingham stratigraphical column. Two separate shoots of ore, the Tiewaukee and Caledonia, outcrop on the property at places about 200 feet apart on the south side of Winamuck Gulch and with a flat dip, trend southwesterly toward the canyon floor. By a series of short tunnels these oreshoots in very early days were exploited from surface nearly to the canyon floor, in the case of the Tiewaukee shaft. The formation is cut by a series of movement planes that strike northeast-southwest and dip northwestward at angles ranging from 20 degrees to 75 degrees.

The Tiewaukee oreshoot occurred as lenticular shoots on the fissures, and made out as lenses into the footwall and as nearly vertical sinuous pipes into the hanging wall and is related to an arenaceous limestone. The largest stope found is where the orebody made on a flat movement plane and extends down to the lower tunnel where the ore is cut off by a strong nearly vertical northeast fault just below the tunnel.

The Montana Bingham Company sunk a vertical shaft from the lower tunnel 110 feet deep and at the 90 foot point which is just above standing water level, extended a level a short distance and connected with an early day underhand stope. Work was discontinued below the level and with high metal prices during World War I enabled the company to mine out a small production left in the old stopes. The lower tunnel and for about fifty feet above was in the sulphide ore containing lead-zinc and a good silver content with occasional patches of high grade ruby silver present.

The Caledonia oreshoot was exploited in early days from surface by two tunnels driven from Winamuck Gulch to a depth of about 200 feet. The ore occurs as pockets and lenses associated with an altered bedding of quartzite that dips southwestward. The upper workings yielded oxidized lead ore which gave way to galena and pyrite and accompanying gold and silver.

The Fortuna group of claims comprises a consolidation in _____ of the Fortuna group and adjoining Mayflower Mining Company's property, located on the Lark side of the Bingham range and extend southwesterly from Keystone Gulch to Copper Gulch, about _____ miles southeast of the portal of the Montana Bingham tunnel. The claims covering the outcrops (from the lowest to the highest in the strata) of the Weasel, Mayflower, Fortune, Sierra Grande and Winebago veins _________ for strike lengths of about one and one-quarter miles. __________ dipping ____ into the mountain with the stratigraphical position of the Weasel vein (the lowest of the series) _____ feet above the Commercial limestone. They are all bedded veins and dipping northwestward at about 30 degrees into the mountain. Very little work has been performed on the Weasel, Sierra Grande and Winebago veins. The Fortune vein, which occurs at the lower contact of the Fortuna sill, the largest sill known in the district, and can be traced northeasterly from the main intrusive body of Upper Bingham up along the divide between Copper and Keystone gulches, across Keystone Gulch and thence northerly beyond Midas Gulch. A series of tunnels in their order (from the highest to lowest) Fortune, Freedom, Keystone and Contention, were driven from the south slope of Keystone Gulch southwestward on the Fortune vein and disclosed a distinct zone of movement carrying gouge material which at three different places gave way to lenticular bodies of ore that thicken up from a mere seam to seven feet. In the upper two tunnels the ore was oxidized lead and copper but gave way to sulfides on the Keystone and Contention tunnels and the transition zone is in accordance with a certain depth from surface.

During the early nineteen hundreds a crosscut was driven southeasterly from the Keystone tunnel to the Mayflower vein and disclosed the downward continuation of the Mayflower vein and oreshoot. In early days the Mayflower Mining Company developed its property by two tunnels (the Mayflower upper and lower) driven southwestward from Mayflower Gulch (the north branch of Copper Gulch) and by the Mayflower incline, sunk from surface on the dip of the Mayflower vein, and connected with the tunnels. This Mayflower oreshoot is economically of most importance in the property. The upper and lower tunnels disclosed oxidized lead ore which at depth gave way to a copper sulphide with local occurrences of lead. From about 1903 to 1908 developments from the Keystone tunnel both above and by winzing yielded a steady output of relatively high grade copper ore. Also at the westerly edge of this sulphide copper oreshoot there was developed a disseminated copper oreshoot extending from the vein substantial distances into the quartzite hangingwall and averaging about one and one half per cent copper. This orebody, although much smaller greatly resembles the Ohio Copper disseminated copper deposit which is about 6000[?] feet to the west and about the same stratigraphic horizon.

With low metal prices after the money panic in the fall of 1907, the mine was closed down and remained down until about 1916 during World War I. The Fortuna Mining Company's stock was closely held by Simon Bamberger a governor of Utah and about 1916, George Eccles, an Ogden capitalist, obtained an option on the property.

The Keystone tunnel was cleaned up and repaired up to the copper disseminated orebody and a concentrating mill erected on the north slope of Keystone Gulch and near the portal of the tunnel. The mill of about 100 tons capacity was constructed of wood covered with corrugated iron and was equipped almost entirely with old second hand machinery except for the Wall corrugated rolls, an invention of Enos Wall of Utah Copper fame. The water for the mill was pumped from the Montana Bingham tunnel through a 4 inch pipe in the Congor raise which had been driven by the Bingham Congor Company to a connection with the bottom of the Congor incline that extended down from a short adit which has its portal on the north side of Keystone Gulch just above the mill.

In the first place the indicated tonnage of milling ore never justified the construction of a mill and a steady operation of the mill was never sustained from the stoping operations. There was no development work carried on and within a few months in ______ Mr. Eccles turned his option over to the Montana Bingham Company.

With its portal on the east side of lower Bingham Canyon and about one mile northwest of the Fortuna property, the Montana Bingham Company had extended the Montana Bingham tunnel about 4000 feet southeasterly and it had passed through its property and the properties of the Bingham Congor Copper and United Bingham properties without disclosing a profitable orebody, and the face of the tunnel was in the down dip of the Fortuna sill of porphyry at the boundary line of the Fortune group of mining claims. The Honolulu interests, now in control of the Montana Bingham Company, investigated the Fortune mine and were sufficiently impressed to at least hope that by extending the Montana Bingham tunnel an additional 1500 feet to a projection ______ of the Mayflower veins, there was a mining chance of success in their venture.

Financed by stock assessments enabled the company to further extend the tunnel which passed through the Fortune sill of porphyry and intersect the Mayflower vein at about 5900 feet from the portal and about 900 feet measured on the dip of the vein, below the Keystone tunnel. The vein at the intersection is practically barren, except for a thin seam of mineralization and gouge material. The tunnel was then changed from a southeasterly to a general southwesterly course along the vein for about 300 feet then along the footwall quartzite for an additional 700 feet. The course of the tunnel was then changed to the northwest and intersected the vein in about 100 feet where a small seam of copper ore was disclosed.

By ______ the Sugar and Pineapple people in Honolulu were looking for a way out of their venture and came to Salt Lake City and negotiated a sale of their Montana Bingham interests, both bonds and stock to the Bingham Mines Company. Further extension of the tunnel southwesterly along the Mayflower vein disclosed the Mayflower oreshoot which on the tunnel level is ____ feet wide and averages 5 feet thick. The ore is chalcopyrite with an excess of iron as pyrite over silica and appreciable amounts of gold and silver.

Profitable operations were carried on from 1919 to February 1924 in the development and mining of this oreshoot consisting in _____ feet of development work and the production of ______ tons of copper ore. A raise was driven on the dip of the vein to a connection with a winze sunk from the Keystone tunnel, which besides providing for ventilation is a facility for development and mining the oreshoot above the level. An incline winze was sunk from the Montana Bingham tunnel about 300 feet on the dip of the vein and at intervals of 100 feet levels were extended therefrom which discloses the downward continuation of the oreshoot.

Due to low metal prices and a falling off in the grade of ore the company was just trading dollars in 1923 and decided to close down February 1924. It was believed certain economies could be obtained in the operation of the Fortune mine as an integral part of the Lark mine operation instead of as an independent unit confronted with large capital expenditures toward reducing mine transportation costs and the cost of waste disposal from the portal of the Montana Bingham Tunnel. And therefore [the company] planned to drive a crosscut from the Ohio Copper crosscut on the Mascotte tunnel northerly about _____ feet to a projection of the Mayflower vein, at a horizon about 1000 feet measured on the dip of the vein below the Montana Bingham tunnel. However, the company was unable to negotiate a satisfactory agreement with the Ohio Copper Company and the proposed crosscut was placed on the list of deferments.

The Montana Bingham Company in ______ exercised its option on the Tiewaukee property and following the closing down of the Montana bingham tunnel operation collected the copper-laden waters escaping from Utah Copper waste dumps that flowed down Winamuck Gulch. Such waters were diverted from the gulch into the old Tiewaukee mine workings, which extended to surface, and were conducted to a precipitating plant constructed on the old mine dump at the portal of the Tiewaukee lower tunnel. The revenue from this precipitating plant provided funds for a small amount of development in the mine itself. A raise was made 125 feet above the lower tunnel as a facility toward the development of a downward continuation of the Caledonia oreshoot. A short crosscut from the top of the raise disclosed a siliceous, extremely honeycombed deposit similar to those found in caverns that carried sand carbonates of lead and relatively high silver content. The ore however, had only about one half the specific gravity of the ordinary run of mine ore. This deposit was about 25 feet in diameter and was mined up to a connection with the early day workings. Its downward continuation was developed by drifting on the Caledonia fissure disclosed on the lower tunnel. A raise on the dip of the fissure in the oreshoot discloses low grade lead-zinc sulphide carrying appreciable amounts of gold, silver and copper.

The Utah Copper Company in _____ became actively interested in establishing its ownership of percolating waters collected in solution, the copper content from its dumps and the rights to collect such copper-laden waters and appropriate them to its own use. As a test case a lawsuit was started involving the ownership of these Winamuck Gulch copper waters and after a hotly contested battle in the district court at Salt Lake City, the Utah Copper Company by condemnation proceedings obtained a right of way to drive a tunnel in Winamuck Gulch underneath the toe of its dump for the purpose of collecting the copper laden waters escaping therefrom. On the ground at Bingham, a constant race was kept going by both parties in the advancement of its respective underground workings underneath the bottom of the gulch through which it could collect and divert the water into its respective precipitation plant. The Utah Copper has constructed a small precipitating plant situated about 200 feet north of the D & R G depot in lower Bingham.

The courts of Utah entered judgement for the Utah Copper Company which was followed by it building its large precipitating plant at the mouth of Bingham Canyon and the agreements of Utah Copper Company and Bingham Mines Company of February 1929 and the Utah Copper Company and Montana Bingham Company of February 1929.

The Ute Copper Company's property comprises two groups, the Winamuck and Mohawk, located in lower Bingham Canyon and extending on its east slope up to and including the top of the ridge. The Winamuck orebody outcrops about midway up the east slope and in early days was exploited by a series of seven tunnels from the outcrop at successive lower elevations down to the main Weir tunnel which has its portal about 50 feet above the canyon floor and opposite the Denver and Rio Grande railroad station.

The country rock is highly stained quartzite including precipitous bluffs. A strong porphyry dike cuts the quartzite and can be traced from the main Bingham stock northeastward along the east slope down canyon to nearly its mouth. The orebody occurs in a strong fracture zone that strikes northwesterly and dips northeasterly which is complicated by a number of fissures, slip planes and the Winamuck fault. Carbonate lead ore containing substantial amounts of silver were mined in early days from the upper outcrop down to about 50 feet above the Weir tunnel where it gives way to lead and zinc sulfides. The footwall of the orebody is quartzite while the hangingwall in the upper workings is a soft granular rock that in the lower workings is a soft black shale.

An incline winze about 400 feet long was sunk from the Weir tunnel on a dip of about 35 degrees exploiting the downward continuation of the orebody which lenticular in form was largest above the Weir tunnel about 200 feet along strike with a maximum thickness of 20 feet. On the Weir tunnel the oreshoot narrowed down to about 50 feet along strike and also thinned out toward the edges. The ore below this tunnel level descends as a contracting sinuous shoot and at the 300 and 400 levels crosscuts in the footwall quartzite respectively disclosed separate pipes of rich silver-lead ore which extend nearly vertical and were mined up to connections with the main vein.

About _____ feet northeast of the portal of the Weir tunnel a vertical shaft was sunk in the hangingwall of the Winamuck vein to a depth of 200 feet and connections were made with workings off the incline winze. It is reported that this work cut a number of seams of galena very rich in silver occurring in the quartzite, but the work was greatly hampered by increasing volumes of water and with the difficulty of handling it with steam pumps was so costly as to result in closing the mine down.

In 1907, after Mr. Tom Weir acquired the Winamuck mine he opened up the lower tunnel, named Weir, and extended it about _____ feet southeasterly underneath the brecciated bluffs of iron stained quartzite gossen high on the slope above the Winamuck mine. This extension cut the porphyry dike and was then driven in quartzite the remaining distance without disclosing anything considered worthy of development.

The Winamuck mine was among the earliest developed in the Bingham district and it is significant that the first patent No.37 was issued to the Winamuck lode claim. Also, in the late 1860's a smelter was constructed on this property to smelt this mine's production and a very important improvement in furnace construction was developed: the application of the water jacket.

Thomas Weir, an associate of Samuel Newhouse in the nineties in the development of the Highland boy mine in the Carr Fork area on the sale of this mine to the Lewisholm interest acquired the Columbia mine, predecessor of the Ohio Copper Company and also the Winamuck mine. To round out his holdings of the original Winamuck property Mr. Weir acquired small groups and individual mine and placer claims forming a contiguous group of _____ acres. Also he acquired for the Ute Copper Company a one half interest in the Dixon mine.

Near the portal of the Weir tunnel a small gravity concentrator and equipped with the conventional equipment of that period, crushers, rolls, chilean mills, jigs, tables and vanners. The Columbia mine was acquired by the Ohio Copper Company organized in ______ by Thomas Weir and Henry Catrow interests of Ohio. Developments adjoining the Utah Copper mine for large scale operations, similar to the Utah Copper block caving system of mining, was commenced and the production from the development work in the large disseminated copper deposit mostly in the marginal quartzite around the Utah Copper porphyry ore was treated in this Winamuck mill. In many respects it was an experimental mill to aid in determining the flow sheet for the design of a large plant of 3000 tons per 24 hours, built at Lark by the Ohio Copper Company, the construction of which was commenced in the spring of 1907 after F. Augustus Heinze purchased stock control of the Ohio Copper Company.

On the Mohawk group of the Ute Copper Company a tunnel with its portal about 1000 feet northeast of the Winamuck mine was driven southeasterly from Bingham Canyon ______ feet in quartzite and failed to disclose mineral. However, from surface far up the slope during World War I lessees mined a number of railroad cars of oxidized copper ore averaging about 4 per cent. This oreshoot occurs at the hangingwall contact of a porphyry dike with quartzite that can be traced from the main Bingham intrusive northeasterly along the east slope of Bingham Canyon practically to the latite (extrusive) in the foothills at the eastern base of the Oquirrh Range.

July 21, 1925 the Bingham Mines Company purchased the other half of the Dixon mine from Martha J. Watson, widow of an early day miner and operator in the Bingham district. The purchase however included the underground rights with limited surface rights. On account of its location at a comparatively wide part of the canyon Mr. Watson over the years had a steady income from rentals of the surface from residences mostly, and in large part she reserved the surface.

The Dixon mine is located on the northwest side of lower Bingham Canyon, at and below the mouth of Freeman Gulch, on a northeast-southwest fracture zone, in black calcareous shale. At a number of places on the outcrop of the vein are shallow workings as tunnels, inclines and shafts on the northwest side and about 50 feet above the canyon floor. At depth the vein was developed in early days, by a main incline sunk about 250 feet on its dip northwestward and averaging about 30 degrees. Laterals at the ____ levels were driven from the main incline northeastward and southwestward for ______ feet along the vein and disclosed ______ orebodies.

The ore occurs in the form of lenses in the vein which is a strong fissure with a fine grained shale for both a hanging and footwall. Close to surface the ore is a carbonate lead but gives way to sulfides at relatively shallow depth, mixed with oxidized ores. It is reported that the carbonate ores were very high grade lead carrying exceptionally high values in gold and silver. Considerable development work is reported to have been carried on below the main drift level but failed to find downward continuations of the large lenses which were mined from surface to that level.

Following are the productions from the Tiewaukee, Caledonia, Winamuck and Dixon mines obtained from records which are believed to be quite complete:



In the early days there was considerable mining activity in the lower Bingham area where the above named properties are situated including those in Markham Gulch such as the Montezuma, Hoogley, Liberal, Ben Butler, Erie, Julia Dean, Red Wing and Black Dog mines. These mines were all productive of lead ores containing relatively high silver content and there were many other groups of claims adjoining these mines with mineral showings that were prospected.

From the records available and investigations of the workings that have been accessible during the past 35 years it appears the early mining operations encountered considerable water at relatively shallow depths and comparatively lower grade ore in the sulphide zones than that found in the near surface oxidized zone. The steam or compressed air operated pumps used in the early days were not only inefficient but not too reliable and water always was a problem for the operator. Also, in 1893 mining in Bingham was seriously set back when Indian mints were closed to the free coinage of silver and the United States Congress repealed an act providing for the purchase of 4,500,000 fine ounces of silver a month.

When the Bingham Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, financed by Boston capital was organized on its acquisition of the Dalton and Lark properties, the situation at these mines, that is closed down after getting into the sulphide zone and confronted with a water problem, were in certain respects similar to that found by the Bingham Mines Company in the early 1920's when it became interested in the Winamuck and Dixon mines in the lower Bingham area.

The Bingham Mines Company in its operations in the Bingham district had achieved considerable success by 1920 and the persons responsible for the operations had developed great faith in the future of the district at depth. Its developments in the central and eastern portions of the Lark property below the Mascotte tunnel disclosed the orebodies at depth larger and of practically as good grade as had existed above in the sulphide zone. All work below this drainage tunnel was in the saturated zone and developed considerable water to be pumped. The normal flow however could be controlled by planning the drainage levels from the shaft at intervals that did not produce excessive head and by timing the work well ahead so that the draining would be quite complete before stoping operations were commenced. Also, the direct connected electric-driven centrifugal pump had proved a great success in the handling of water by 1922 in this mine. It was both reliable and economical.

With the above as a background the Bingham Mines management was convinced that the lower Bingham area had a good mining chance of again becoming productive, which resulted in its acquisition of the Tiewaukee, Ute Copper and Dixon properties all contiguous and comprising _____ acres of mineral ground.

In 1929 the United States Smelting Refining and Mining Company owned ______ acres of mineral ground in the Bingham district situated in upper main Bingham Canyon and considered the most intensely mineralized area in the district which had yielded many millions of dollars from surface to relatively shallow depths. Now with acquisition July 22, 1929 of the holdings of the Bingham Mines company and its subsidiary Montana Bingham Consolidated comprising _______ acres, the USCo had increased its mining property to a total of _____ acres all contiguous except for the lower Bingham group of claims. Also it had acquired the townsite of Lark and _____ acres of agricultural ground adjacent to the townsite along with _______ locations of mining claims which fills the gap on the foothills between the Lark townsite and the patented mining claims located on the slope at the eastern base of the Oquirrh Range.

This large domain of mineral ground could not have fallen in better hands strongly financed and with an outstanding record in the Bingham district. Also, the operations were entrusted to Downey D. Muir as General Manager with background, training and experience, and no man was better qualified to blaze the trail which has placed the production of lead and zinc by the US Company from the Bingham district that for at least the past 20 years has consistently about equalled or exceeded the total production of all the rest of the mines in the State of Utah, and Utah has always stood high in the list of states in the production of these metals. Also, this company has stood second to the Utah Copper in the production of gold-silver and copper in Utah for a number of years.

The Bingham Mines operating staff was retained and continued with the mining at a slightly increased rate due to the fact that all the lead-zinc sulfides were treated in the US concentrator at Midvale, while before the Lark vein ores, providing the bulk of the Lark Mine's production was not acceptable to the International Smelting and Mining Company for treatment in its Tooele Mill and therefore selective mining by the Bingham Mines Company was required to make direct smelting products. At first the floating of this Lark vein ore presented a problem on account of the oxidation especially of the copper and iron minerals accompanying the lead-zinc and the presence of free carbon. However the laboratory staff headed by Rolla Pallanch found a solution of the problem and set aside a unit of the mill with which to treat the Lark mine ores exclusively. The recoveries are practically as good as the general run of mine lead-zinc ores from the Bingham district, and quite satisfactory.

The U.S. Geological Department commenced a detailed study of the surface and the miles of old workings that were open for investigation toward its recommendations for speeding up development of the known oreshoots at depth and exploration of virgin areas believed to hold good possibilities of ore. And based on this study the 56 crosscut on the Mascotte Tunnel level, which had been driven by the Bingham Con Company northwesterly from a point 5600 feet from the portal of the Mascotte Tunnel, was extended in quartzite to the Jordan limestone. The Bingham Con, in driving the Mascotte Tunnel, planned to reach the Lark vein via this crosscut but was driven out by a large flow of water and compelled to drive by a roundabout way to ultimately reach the vein. And for many years water was impounded in this crosscut and piped to surface for culinary use in the town of Lark.

This 56 crosscut extension cut a vertical fissure in the quartzite carrying oxidized lead ore about 8 inches thick and in the limestone cut a strong fissure designated 56-No.1, striking northeast, southwest diagonally across the limestone with a good grade of lead-zinc 14 feet thick. Further development toward the northeast, both along the fissure and then along the footwall contact of the limestone with quartzite cut two other ore bearing fissures parallel to the 56-No.1. These fissures could not be traced into the footwall quartzite on the Mascotte Tunnel, but the No.1 fissure shows continuous ore through the limestone and into the hangingwall quartzite, and in places was mined right up to the Lark vein. The 56-No.1 fissure dips at about 60 degrees to the northwest and has been exploited for a distance of about 200 feet above the Mascotte Tunnel level and down to the 1800 level below the tunnel. Stoping shows the orebody in the form of an elongated shoot and as presently developed _____ feet in length following a fissure where it cuts the Jordan limestone. The orebody has a definite footwall of limestone but widens out toward the hangingwall to a maximum thickness of 50 feet.

The No.2 and No.3 fissure oreshoots also persist to depth but the ore occurrences are not as continuous as the No.1, however yield substantial tonnages of lead-zinc from the Jordan limestone as host rock.

During the depression of the early thirties, stoping operations were discontinued at the Lark Mine but the entire operating force was retained and the men formerly on stoping were used on development and exploration work which was again increased.

Central to the main productive area of the property a main vertical shaft of three compartments was planned to facilitate the development at depth and accelerate the drainage, also, provide additional ventilation.

Designated as the Lark Shaft the collar is located on the Mascotte Tunnel Level midway between the Jordan limestone and Lark vein and about 7500 feet from the tunnel's portal. There was considerable preparatory work necessary before actual sinking. In the footwall quartzite of the Lark vein, a hoist station and compressor station were cut and connected by a short drift, also these stations were connected to the course of ventilation on the Mascotte Tunnel through No.12 raise to surface. Both stations and all the connections were gunited which on the quartzite has been very effective and is lasting.

To provide adequate power, a 44,000 volt electric transmission line, consolidating the U.S. and Lark mines, was erected from a new substation near the portal of the Niagara tunnel to extend to a substation at the collar of the Yosemite Incline, thence to a substation at the collar of No.12 raise. The Utah Power and Light Company furnished the power at the Niagara substation, thus providing a one point delivery for both mines. Also, toward insuring continuous power service a rotary switch was erected near the collar of the No.12 raise so that power could be either taken from the Utah Power Company's sources at Grace, Idaho or the Jordan Narrows. To supplement the underground transmission line installed by the Bingham Mines Company through the Yosemite Incline power cables carrying 2200 volts were installed from the No.12 raise substation through this raise to the main underground substation on the Mascotte Tunnel at the collar of the Lark shaft.

The Lark shaft raise and rope raise with dump pockets were then driven and equipped ready for sinking. Mining operations by the Bingham Mines Company through the No.2 and No.4 inclines below the Mascotte tunnel had lowered the standing water level to 194 feet vertically below the tunnel. So the sinking to this point was dry ground and for the first 30 feet of the shaft mechanical mucking was tried out. A clam shell attached to the rope on the sinking hoist was dropped into the broken muck but due in large part to the muck breaking fine and sort of compacting after the blast, the clam shell failed to dig in and pick up much of a load. In fact, it was in the nature of an experiment and the equipment was all made at the Company's Midvale Smelter shops as there was no standard equipment at that time applicable to shaft mucking on the market; however, there has since been developed the Riddel Mucking Equipment for shaft sinking which is quite practical on many sinking jobs. With the depression on there was an ample supply of expert shaftmen willing to give a full day's work, so from an economic standpoint the hand mucking was not supplanted on this job.

A relatively large amount of water was anticipated in the shaft and there was installed a deep well pump operated at 220 volts with flexible discharge hose and priming features. The pump was attached to a steel frame with guide shoes that was raised and lowered in the manway compartment by a low geared winch erected at the collar. The maximum flow encountered in the sinking operation was about 300 gallons per minute and the sinking job was accomplished in good time and with surprisingly good costs.

During the preparatory work and sinking of the Lark shaft, the No.2, No.4 and Sampson Inclines were being extended down the dip of the Lark vein and laterals therefrom along the Lark vein. Also, the development of the 56 fissures Nos. 1, 2 and 3 in the Jordan limestone, both above the tunnel and below through the 56 winze, was going forward. And in the far western end of the Lark mine development of the Revere oreshoot was being carried on the 800 and 1300 levels of the Yosemite No.1 Incline. The 1300 crosscut discloses the Lark Yosemite vein a few feet from the incline. It is a strong structure carrying pyritic material about 5 feet thick with small amounts of gold and silver. Also, this crosscut was extended into the footwall quartzite and intersected the downward projection of the Trinity vein which stratigraphically lies _______ feet beneath the Jordan limestone.

At this 1300 level the Trinity vein was developed for ______ feet southwesterly along its strike but failed to disclose a downward continuation of the oreshoot exploited in early days and by subsequent lessees. The drifting shows a strong bedded vein structure of an altered sandy and clayey material about 5 feet thick between definite quartzite walls. On the Trinity claim at surface there outcrops prominently a small sinuous oreshoot which trends at a flat pitch toward the southwest. This oreshoot has been exploited for about 100 feet in length and yielded a highly siliceous ore shipment of which, by selective mining, assayed about one ounce in gold, appreciable silver content, but only traces of lead and copper.

Also, during the sinking of the Lark shaft considerable exploratory work was going forward in the eastern end of the mine on the Mascotte tunnel in the area north of No.12 raise where there exists a relatively abrupt flexure in the Lark vein and related sedimentary rocks that produce a pronounced trough in the formation. The east drift passes through the Lark vein into the quartzite footwall beneath the trough and from its eastern end a crosscut was driven _______ cutting across the upper part of the Jordan limestone and disclosed a strong nearly vertical fissure striking northeast-southwest. Development on this, designated as No.13 fissure, has been carried on along its strike from the Lark vein northeast through footwall quartzite and practically through the Jordan limestone and to points ______ feet above and _______ feet below the Mascotte tunnel level. The ore occurrence follows the fissure as sinuous pipes and pod-like bodies which yielded a lead-zinc ore carrying silver from 30 to 60 ounces per ton.

Also, in this eastern end a drift on the Lark vein was extended northerly thence northwesterly into the Bingham Prospect area. From this drift crosscuts were driven to the Commercial limestone and the Jordan limestone which shows the quartzite between the Lark vein and the respective limestones considerably less in thickness than is found normally in the central and westerly parts of the property. From the crosscuts drifting shows only faint mineralization in the Commercial limestone but discloses a strong flat fissure, designated as No.14, which strikes northeast. Drifting toward the northeast along the fissure in the Jordan limestone discovered two oreshoots about ________ apart carrying lead-zinc ore. The westerly one is quite low grade while the easterly one in the form of a sinuous pipe is relatively high in silver and has been exploited about ________ feet above the Mascotte Tunnel.

The exploratory work toward the north on the Mascotte Tunnel level was extended by a No.13 crosscut beyond the Jordan limestone for a distance of _______ feet. The No.13 crosscut in large part is in the footwall of the North fault and in a series of strata that do not correlate with those found in the southwestern part of the Lark Mine and U.S. Mine. Although the No.13 crosscut failed to disclose mineralization at this Mascotte Tunnel level underneath the North fault, a drift on the 500 level from the Lark shaft has been driven northeasterly disclosing a continuation of ore and a persistence of the 56 No.1 fissure into the footwall of the Jordan limestone and a series of strata including limestone measures underneath the North fault.

The Yosemite drift on the Mascotte Tunnel level enters a sill-dike of porphyry about ______ feet southwest of the Lead Mine oreshoot where it appears to have absorbed a part of the Lark-Yosemite vein at depth and portions of the Commercial limestone. However, diamond drilling to the northwest from this drift revealed the Commercial limestone so a crosscut was driven northwesterly and disclosed vein structure. Drifting on this bedded vein at the base of the limestone toward the southwest discloses a low grade copper pyritic material about 5 feet thick with a quartzite footwall and limestone hangingwall and drifting toward the northwest discloses bunches of lead-zinc ore more or less interrupted by intrusions of porphyry. also, this bedded vein is intersected by a vertical fissure at a point nearly opposite the crosscut, and a drift toward the west on this fissure discloses a continuous seam of galena which in two places widens out to about one foot. The walls of the fissure are extremely hard white limestone. On surface up dip from these developments there is the Silver Gauntlet fissure, which cuts across the strata, and considerable iron stained breccia at the hangingwall of the Commercial limestone. This fissure has been prospected by a near surface tunnel on the Silver Gauntlet claim which discloses a strong structure that has yielded from leasing operation a small tonnage of oxidized copper ore. A projection of the Silver Gauntlet fissure lines up with the Panhandle oreshoot at the hangingwall of the Jordan limestone located at the top of the ridge between Yosemite and Copper gulches. Also, from surface in this area, a tunnel with its portal at the bottom of Copper Gulch about 200 feet southwest of the Lead Mine shaft, was driven southwesterly in Commercial limestone, but from all accounts without productive results. The cross fissure developed on the Mascotte Tunnel is widely separated from the Silver Gauntlet fissure and may be correlated to a fissure on the Henley claim of the Ohio group of claims. This area holds a considerable extent of Commercial limestone undeveloped both on dip and strike that is believed to have the possibilities of a profitable orebody.

With the sinking of the Lark shaft to a point of 90 feet below the 500 level, ore and waste pockets equipped with air operated gates and measuring chutes were constructed below the 500 level, also sumps for collecting water to be pumped on the level. A pump station was cut and pumps totalling 1600 gallons per minute installed about 4 feet above the floor of the level. From the shaft station run arounds were driven convenient for haulage so that crosscuts could be driven both northwest and southeast. The management was aware of the possibility of sudden development of abnormal flows of water so planned to construct water doors in each of the crosscuts at points which would not interfere with the switching of trains around the station. A water fissure known on the levels above as source of abnormal flows projected about 600 feet from the shaft in the northwest crosscut but at a point about 50 feet from the shaft a blast broke into an unknown open fissure which poured out a volume of water estimated at 3000 gallons per minute. In short time the shaft and pump stations were flooded and the water level came to rest at a point about 193 feet below the collar of the shaft. Measurements taken in the shaft indicated that after the first rush, which filled the stations and sump, the flow had receded to about 1000 gallons per minute. For the unwatering a deep well pump of 1000 gallons per minute was installed at the 193 point in the shaft and from this point auxiliary pumps lifted the water to the Mascotte Tunnel. The sinking pump implemented the unwatering and the electric pumps with their 2200 volt auxiliary equipment were recovered, dried out and again installed at the 500 level without any apparent damage to the electrical equipment.

The northwest crosscut was then extended about 50 feet and a water door erected and equipped to control abnormal flows to the capacity of the pumps. This northwest crosscut was then extended to the Jordan limestone and Lark vein. Developments from the crosscut disclosed the downward continuations of the 56 No.1, 2 and 3 oreshoots in the Jordan limestone and the Lark vein at the 500 vertical level, which corresponds to 1200 feet as measured on the dip, was found to be as highly productive of lead-zinc as was found in the winze work and laterals above. The confidence the management showed in the possibilities at depth backed by the capital expenditures resulted in increasing the probable reserves of lead-zinc carrying good silver content from 200,000 tons of ore to one million tons.

This vertical 500 level was extended northeasterly to the Bingham Prospect oreshoot and southwesterly to the Brooklyn oreshoot, a total of ________ feet along the strike of the productive veins in the Lark Mine. This work discloses downward persistence of all the oreshoots on the different structures previously exploited on higher levels by the U.S. Company and its predecessors to an average depth of 2500 feet measured on the dip of the Lark vein from surface. The dip of the Lark vein averages about 38 degrees from surface to the Mascotte Tunnel, a dip distance of 1300 feet and flattens to an average of 25 degrees from the tunnel to the vertical 500 level, a dip distance of 1200 feet. This vertical 500 level, which corresponds to 1200 level on the dip, is designated as the 1200 level and such designation of levels below the Mascotte Tunnel are based on dip distance.

In order to keep the exploratory and development work well ahead and provide for drainage and dry stoping operations the Lark vertical shaft was extended to allow for a 1000 vertical level _____ 110 feet of shaft below for loading pockets, spillage pockets and the skip loading equipment. The procedure in the sinking operation was adjusted to the use of two compartments for mining operations from the 500 level by setting aside the north compartment for hoisting muck in the sinking operation. The broken muck in the bottom of the shaft was shoveled in a conventional pan hoisted by a small jigger hoist sitting on timber about 3 sets above the bottom, and dumped into the main skip which was then hoisted and dumped into a pocket above the Mascotte Tunnel to be hauled to the surface dump. Also, a change was made in the pumping of water made in sinking. Instead of using the small deep well pump, two small electric centrifugal pumps were installed on a cage to operate in the manway compartment below the 500 level. The cage was handled by a low geared winch installed on the 500 level.

On the 1000 vertical level, shaft stations, loading pockets, sumps and a pump station were constructed. The pump station, more elaborate than on the 500 level, is enclosed in concrete that extends about 5 feet above the floor of the 1000 level, and there is space for three electric centrifugal pumps of 1000 gallons per minute at 1000 feet _ad operated at 2200 volts.

From the shaft on the 1000 level crosscuts were extended southerly and northwesterly. The northwest crosscut is on a direct line normal to the Jordan limestone and Lark vein and being in the footwall quartzite of each speedily drained the areas on those veins directly above.

Simultaneously with extending the Lark shaft to the 1000 level, the 5828 Incline shaft of three compartments was sunk from the main haulage drift on the 500 level. This incline, equipped with loading pockets and hoist station, has its collar at the haulage drift in the footwall quartzite about 50 feet beneath the Lark vein and is sunk on a dip of 27 degrees approximating the dip of the vein. This provides relatively solid ground and loading pockets that connect the incline direct with the main haulage drift on the Lark vein driven at any level from the Incline. Laterals from this incline were extended northerly and southwesterly along the Lark vein at the 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 and 2250. From the 1400, 1600 and 1800 laterals, crosscuts were driven to the 56 Nos.1, 2 and 3 fissure orebodies in the Jordan limestone and also to the Commercial limestone. This work discloses the downward continuations of the various oreshoots in their respective structures and the orebodies comparable in both extent and metal content as those mined in the primary sulphide zone which begins on an average about 900 feet from the surface as measured on the dip of the veins.

In such general manner the exploratory and development of this mine goes on both laterally and ever increasing depth. This 1000 vertical level corresponds to the 2500 level measured on the dip of the strata below the Mascotte Tunnel or 3800 feet from the outcrops of the veins at surface. In order to prepare for the future and maintain a production of approximately 800 tons of lead-zinc ore per day, another three compartment incline, designated as 5515, with its collar on the 2500 level is being sunk in the footwall of the Lark vein and has attained a depth of _____ feet.

Almost immediately after the U.S. Company acquired the Lark property, Downey Muir started negotiations toward further rounding out the Company's holdings to cover practically the entire east slope of the Oquirrh Range extending from the upper end of Bear Gulch easterly to the ridge, thence continuing easterly covering the upper parts of Castro and Saints Rest gulches, thence continuing easterly down Saints Rest to the mouth of Butterfield Canyon, thence northerly to lower Bingham Canyon, a distance of five and one half miles along the strike of the bedded vein structures and limestone members which have yielded the bulk of the Bingham production outside of the production of the copper, gold, silver and molybdenum obtained from the disseminated porphyry and quartzite ores of the Utah Copper, Boston Consolidated, and Ohio Copper mines. Mr. Fred Mulock, who later succeeded to the General Manager of Western Operations, has practically completed the expansion policy initiated by Mr. Muir in the Lark area. It is a great accomplishment by a company with the experience, background and know-how to attain such a position as will enable it to fully realize the potentialities of the vast storehouse of metals so urgently needed in the economy of not only the immediate locality but as an important contributor to the requirements of industry throughout the United States.

This policy of expansion is not confined to the Lark area alone, but extends to other parts of the district which through Mr. Mulock's fine spirit of cooperation with the Kennecott Corporation, the U.S. Company has acquired long term leases from Kennecott on large acreages of mineral ground adjoining U.S. Company's operations that can be more economically explored and developed through the underground facilities of the U.S. Company.

In addition to the Bingham Mines Company properties the U.S. Company acquired the following in the Bingham district under the leadership of Mr. Muir and Mr. Mulock:

Name of Property

Date Acquired

No. of Mining Claims


Tom Moore Group



Bingham Orleans Group



Midas Group



Atlantic Group



Rogers Group



Castro Group



Bingham Bemis Group



Bingham Prospect Group





Lead Silver Group



Osceola and Lucky Boy Group



Day Group


Keystone Group



Bingham Lead Group



Kremlin Group



National Group



Montana Bingham Consolidated



Ohio Copper Company Group



United Bingham Copper



Bingham Congor



The Tom Moore Group of mining claims is located on the east slope at the base of the Oquirrh Range and extends southerly from the mouth of Bingham Canyon at Lead Mine station and Copperton. The western portion is covered with a volcanic flow of latite.

A Mr. ________ Surbaugh, Salt Lake City jeweler, controlled this property for many years. The surface is quite barren of mineralization and the only development workings on the property are shallow, presumably done for assessment work and to meet the required expenditures in acquiring patent from the U.S. Government. On one of the locations included in this group the U.S. Company drove a tunnel in search of a valid discovery for patent purposes and was successful in disclosing a fissure in the latite carrying small amounts of gold.

The Bingham Orleans group, formerly known as the St. Joe Mine, is located in Saints Rest Gulch and on its north slope to the ridge separating this gulch from Yosemite Gulch. The property extends from the top of Saints Rest Gulch easterly to within about _____ feet from the mouth of Butterfield Canyon. In early days shallow workings were made on a strong northwest fissure in a relatively large mass of porphyry and in breccia zones located near the center of the property. A tunnel with its portal on the north slope of Saints Rest Gulch was driven N65° W on the fissure and crosscuts therefrom toward the southwest prospected a strong breccia zone. In the breccia along fracture occurs a kind of mud material that has yielded a small production of lead silver ore. On surface at the top of the ridge above these workings is evidence of the breccia in such form and character as to have given rise to the name of "Explosion Pipe".

In the early part of the century a lower tunnel named the St. Joe Tunnel with its portal on the north side of Saints Rest Gulch at an elevation of _______ feet, sea level datum, was driven westerly about 2000 feet. The portal is in porphyry but the tunnel shortly enters quartzite then a hard dark colored limestone designated as the "B" bed. Further advance through this limestone discloses quartzite then porphyry, which shows considerable fracturing and slight evidence of the mud material which carried the ore in the old upper workings. A very small amount of prospecting was done at this place in the tunnel and apparently no ore was disclosed. However, Pete Anderson, the foreman, once reported a small showing of zinc sulphide carrying an appreciable amount of silver. Work was discontinued on this property in about 1908 and it remained idle until the fall of 1929 when it was acquired by the U.S. Company.

In the late fall of 1929 prospecting was carried on at surface on the Rexite fissure in the vicinity of early day operations related to the breccia zone.

In December, 1929 construction work was commenced at a site _______ near the portal of the St. Joe Tunnel which included a combination shop and compressor building and a small bunk house. The tunnel was widened to accommodate 24 inch gauge track and equipped for electric haulage at 220 volts. Electric power at 5000 volts was supplied to the substation at the portal of the tunnel through a power line that was extended from a Lark Mine 44,000 volt substation at the collar of No.12 raise.

The tunnel was then extended westerly from the old face. The extension for a short distance is in altered soft porphyry and cuts the rock formations in the following order: a crushed quartzite, the lower intermediate limestone, a large mass of a highly altered porphyry, producing swelling ground, and finally, quartzite to the face, which is approximately ______ feet from the portal.

A drift was driven northeasterly along the footwall contact of the lower intermediate limestone with quartzite a distance of _______ feet. At the intersection of the tunnel this limestone is black, hard and thinly bedded with seams of pyrite, but in the drift toward the northeast and right up to the face the limestone is a soft, light colored clayey material. Near the face of this drift a vertical cross fissure was cut that contained lead carbonate ore about six inches thick. A drift on this fissure was made to the northwest through the bed of limestone which is about 50 feet thick. It disclosed a continuation of ore to the quartzite hangingwall but never exceeded a foot in thickness. Outside of this ore showing the drift was barren of mineralization.

From a point in the large mass of porphyry about _______ feet from the portal a crosscut was driven southerly and cut in order the lower intermediate limestone bed, the three Highland limestone beds, the "A" limestone and the upper part of the "B" limestone.

At the footwall of the lower intermediate limestone there is disclosed an oreshoot which has been developed for about 500 feet up on the dip of the bedded fissure, averaging about 38 degrees and down dip by an incline shaft to the Mascotte Tunnel level a dip distance of _______ feet. The ore varies from two to ten feet thick and is extremely loose, mostly pick work, that requires close timbering. It is a lead-zinc zone carrying appreciable amounts of silver and occasional bunches of high grade copper gold ore which was mined separately. On the 500 level above the tunnel the vein pinched down to a mere seam. However, an inconspicuous outcrop was found on the south side of Saints Rest Gulch which by projection and survey established this lode. A hoist house was constructed and electric power line built from the Yosemite 44,000 volt substation of the Lark Mine preparatory for sinking an incline shaft on the dip of the vein. This incline, named the St. Joe Incline, has its collar near the top of Saints Rest Gulch and was sunk on the footwall contact of the lower intermediate limestone for _______ feet and connected in perfect alignment with the top of the raise driven from the St. Joe Tunnel.

On the Mascotte Tunnel of the Lark Mine a crosscut from the bottom of the Yosemite No.1 Incline was driven to a connection with the incline shaft sunk in the St. Joe oreshoot occurring at the base of the Lower Intermediate limestone below the St. Joe Tunnel. __________ southerly ______ feet diagonally cutting the Jordan limestone and dike-sills of porphyry, thence southeasterly _____ feet cutting a series of sub-Jordan beds of relatively thin intercalated limestones in quartzite.

Prior to a connection of the St. Joe Mine with the Mascotte Tunnel, the production was hauled by truck from the portal of the St. Joe Tunnel to a ramp constructed along a siding of the D & R G Railroad at Lark. The production since the connection with the Mascotte Tunnel is hauled out of this tunnel in conjunction with Lark Mine ores.

On the St. Joe Tunnel drifting was carried on from the crosscut for relatively short distance along two of the three thin limestone beds that constitute the Highland limestones. Two small pipes of low grade lead-zinc ore were disclosed on the middle bed and were exploited for about 100 feet above the tunnel level where further prospecting did not appear to be justified. However, development of these beds is going forward on the Mascotte Tunnel level of this mine.

The crosscut on the St. Joe Tunnel failed to show any mineralization of the "A" limestone. This crosscut penetrates about 20 feet of the upper part of the "B" limestone; that is, the hangingwall part and ends in porphyry. From the crosscut a drift was driven westerly along the hangingwall contact with quartzite for about 200 feet and near the face of the drift a crosscut southerly to cut the limestone was driven about 30 feet and stopped as the advance disclosed porphyry. No mineralization was disclosed in this work and from the main crosscut a drift easterly was driven easterly and disclosed a small fissure cutting diagonally across the "B" limestone, carrying about eight inches of galena just off the crosscut. However, within a short distance prospecting this lead fissure was interrupted by a porphyry intrusion and the work here was discontinued.

Near the face of the St. Joe Tunnel a thin limestone bed, designated as one of the sub-Jordan members, was cut and discloses low grade pyrite about 4 feet thick. Also, near the end of the tunnel a raise was driven about 100 feet and connected with the 600 level from the Niagara No.2 shaft of the U.S. Mine at about _______ feet from the shaft.

For the development of the downward continuation of the Revere oreshoot of the Lark Mine and the Jordan limestone at depth in the Telegraph Mine area, a crosscut started from a point _______ feet from the portal of the St. Joe Tunnel is driven northwesterly in quartzite _________ feet to the base of the Jordan limestone, thence ________ feet through this limestone. At different horizons in the limestone the crosscut discloses mineralization and these have been prospected without productive results. However, close to the hangingwall of the limestone a drift was driven easterly toward the downward projection of the Revere oreshoot and discloses a continuation of this lead-zinc orebody. A raise on the ore has connected with the winze sunk on the oreshoot from the Yosemite 1300 level.

The Midas group of mining claims is located in the lower part of Midas Gulch on the east slope of the Oquirrh Range and between Congor Gulch and the Tom Moore group. The property covers quartzite and a massive limestone which until recent years was believed to be the northward continuation of the Commercial or Jordan limestone. This property lies in the footwall of the North Fault and the position of the formation is believed to be much higher in the stratigraphical column than the Lark or the Fortuna series of beds, however its related position has not yet been definitely fixed. There is very little evidence of mineralization and the workings are quite shallow and appear to have been performed more for annual assessment and patenting purposes.

The Atlantic and Rogers groups are contiguous claims located between Keystone and Midas gulches in the foothills at the eastern base of the Oquirrh Range northwest of the town of Lark. A tunnel with its entrance in a gully is driven westerly about 400 feet on the Atlantic group and a shaft about 50 feet deep is sunk on a ___________ fissure. The properties are situated within the great area of extrusives which blanket the eastern slope of this range in this region. The country rock has been named latite and neither the fissures nor the rock carries metal values as a rule. However, gold assays have been obtained from the fissure on the Rogers group but found very spotty and free specks of gold have been panned from the country rock. The Atlantic group and Rogers group were purchased from Joe Lerwill and Sam Rogers respectively, descendants of families among the earliest settlers in the Bingham district.

The Castro group of mining claims adjoins the Bingham Orleans group on the south and west. This property extends from near the top of Castro Gulch westerly to the crest, thence northwesterly covering the top of Bear Gulch. From Castro Gulch an upper and lower tunnel have been driven westerly and disclose the "B" limestone intruded by a mass of porphyry. The ore occurs in bunches and a small production of both oxidized lead from the upper tunnel and sulphide lead-zinc from the lower has been made. There is considerable discoloration of the rock which might be suggestive of ore possibilities. From the top of Bear Gulch a series of short tunnels have been driven on a __________ fissure in porphyry. This part of the gulch is quite flat and very little depth gained. The fissure is nearly vertical and the ore, a good grade of lead-zinc, varies from a mere seam to four feet in thickness.

The Bingham Bemis group of mining claims is a consolidation of properties of the Copper Hill Mining Company and the adjoining Midland Mine, situated on the southeast side of Bingham Canyon covering Damphool Gulch from the canyon floor southeasterly up to the ridge above Bingham Canyon and extending northeasterly just opposite the mouth of Dry Fork where Utah Copper erected its pilot mill at the beginning of the 20th Century.

At about the top of the east slope above Damphool Gulch on the old Midland Mine, a short tunnel, with its portal on the southeast side of Bingham Canyon, was driven southeasterly about ______ feet along a crushed fissure zone between slickensided walls dipping westward at an angle of about 75 degrees. The ore occurs in the fissure in three distinct shoots apparently related to northeast-southwest cross fissures. Although narrow they can be traced on surface short distances beyond the main fissure.

The ore exploited through this near surface tunnel is in the form of a carbonate lead and cores of galena which carry appreciable amounts of gold and silver and some copper. On surface and further to the southeast there is a fourth cross fissure which has been prospected by an open cut driven northeasterly from the northern slope of Damphool Gulch. A small shipment of oxidized copper ore was sorted out in this open cut work, however, the open cut never reached the main fissure.

For the development of these oreshoots at depth a lower tunnel with its portal on the northeast side of Damphool Gulch was driven eastward about 500 feet crosscutting quartzite to the main fissure. A drift was driven on the fissure north 10 degrees west and south 10 degrees east, a total distance of about 700 feet. Raises from the drift provided facilities for mining the downward extensions of the oreshoots which were found to pinch out just above the level but the material in the fissure, although barren is a loose, sandy stained breccia and varies in thickness from 3 to 15 feet.

Then a third tunnel was driven with its portal on the southeast side of the canyon close to the canyon floor and about 500 feet below the upper tunnel. The portal is in quartzite but in a short distance strikes a strong fracture zone that dips at about 70 degrees westward and follows it for _______ feet on a south 10 to 20 degree east course. A short distance in the portal the tunnel cut a porphyry dike about 80 feet thick. This dike can be traced from the main mass of porphyry in upper Bingham Canyon. For the greater portion of its course the fissure [is] within quartzite walls and averages about 4 feet thick and the vein material is loose, sandy, stained breccia similar to that found on the tunnel immediately above in the tunnel driven from Damphool Gulch.

At a point ______ feet from the portal of this low tunnel the U.S. Company drove a crosscut ________ feet in quartzite and at the face discloses a porphyry sill that on surface lies in a saddle on the ridge above Bingham Canyon. Also in the tunnel and about opposite this crosscut a narrow seam with indefinite walls was prospected and yielded assays in gold. Also the USCo in 1931 extended the tunnel southeasterly along the main fissure. This extension discloses quartzite walls for ______ feet and for the remaining _______ feet to the face the fissure follows a contact of a porphyry sill with quartzite. This low tunnel fails to disclose the downward continuations of the oreshoots mine above and near surface.

The lead ore deposit near surface on this property is about _______ miles northeast of the Winamuck orebody and to date is the farthest away from the Utah Copper orebody that has been found in the district.

The USCo and Utah Copper Company jointly purchased this property from Roy Bemis, one of the early settlers in Bingham. The Utah Copper got the surface to a depth of 50 feet and provisions for the capture and conveying away of its copper laden waters originating in its dumps. The USCo got the mineral in the ground. Already the entire surface of the property is covered with Kennecott's low grade material and waste disposal.

The Copper Hill tunnel with its portals on the southeast side of Bingham Canyon was driven southeasterly ________ feet following close to the common boundary between this property and the Ute Copper property. The tunnel is in quartzite from the portal for ______ feet where it intersects a porphyry dike that extends northeasterly from the main Utah Copper stock. The dike dips steeply to the northwest and the tunnel discloses copper ore at the footwall contact. There developed a dispute between the Ute company and the Bemis company over the ownership of the ground covered by the Main Bingham mining claim of the Ute company wherein the copper ore was found. However, it was settled by the Main Bingham claim going to patent and the establishment of a compromise line dividing the claim between the two parties. A small amount of development was done on the copper mineralization but failed to prove a profitable orebody. In about 1917 a set of lessees working at surface almost directly above the showing of ore in the tunnel mined about five railroad cars of oxidized copper ore reported to assay about 4 percent copper per ton.

The Lead Silver Mines property includes a group of mining claims which for many years was known as the Extra Sessions group and located on the north slope of Keystone Gulch at the eastern base of the Oquirrh Range adjoining the Bingham Mines property on the northeast. The property was owned by George Dern, Earl Gardineer of Salt Lake City and three associates. In early days an incline shaft was sunk on an irregular contact of limestone (correlated with the Commercial limestone), with quartzite and the porphyry flow in this region disclosing considerable staining of the rock and occasional spots of lead carbonate carrying silver. This early day work reached a depth of about 200 feet through a crooked incline. In the early 1920's the Bingham Mines Company started negotiations for the property but failed to come to terms with the owners.

Mr. James Hogle, a Salt Lake broker and eastern associates then took an option on the property. By utilizing as much of the old incline as possible an incline was sunk to a depth of about 500 feet on a dip of about _____ degrees to the west. On the 500 level considerable drifting was carried on including a winze without disclosing ore. The work was performed in a rather complicated structure of faulting and fissuring and quite dissimilar to the structure related to the Commercial limestone found in the Bingham Mines ground developed about 2000 feet to the southwest.

It was reported that Mr. Hogle's associates after about $150,000 was expended and the search for ore appeared fruitless, withdrew. Mr. Hogle, however, had faith in the property and negotiated a new option, of better terms for himself. When operations were resumed they were on a small scale and resulted in disclosing first oxidized lead ore carrying relatively high silver about 200 feet down the incline then cut the downward continuation of the oreshoot in the sulphide zone just southwest of the incline on the 500 level.

A winze sunk from the 500 level to the Mascotte Tunnel disclosed an expansion of the mineralization of lead-zinc sulphide in the form of closely superimposed beds in the Commercial limestone and finally to a merging with the Lark vein at about 200 feet above the Mascotte tunnel level. This oreshoot has been developed from the Mascotte Tunnel for 2000 feet on the dip of the Lark vein and has contributed an appreciable tonnage of lead-zinc carrying higher silver content than the run of mine ore from the Lark mine.

Prior to the acquisition of this property by the USCo the ore was hoisted through the Bingham Prospect incline and hauled by truck to a ramp along a siding of the D&RG highline railroad which served the Utah Copper Company pit operation before that company built its own railroad the Bingham and Garfield. Later the Lead Silver Mines Company drove the Congor Tunnel from its portal on the south slope of Congor Gulch at a suitable elevation for dumping the ore directly into the D&RG railroad cars on the siding previously used for truck haulage.

The Congor Tunnel was designed to connect with the drifting on the 500 level of the Incline shaft and facilitated the transportation and exploration. It is driven on a southerly course for ______ feet to a connection with the incline shaft. Considerable exploration work in the form of crosscuts and drifting was done on the Congor Tunnel in the Commercial limestone, Jordan limestone and Lark vein in the general vicinity of the Bingham Prospect oreshoot but failed to disclose another orebody. Also from a point ______ feet from the portal of the tunnel a crosscut was extended westerly and cut two limestone beds _____ feet apart intercalated in the quartzite. This crosscut is well within the footwall of a major fault in this region that strikes _______ and dips __________ to __________. This fault designated as the North has been disclosed on the Mascotte tunnel and at every level below in the northeastern end of the Lark mine. On the Congor tunnel level it is disclosed at a point ________________________________.

This fault appears to terminate the northerly continuations of the Commercial and Jordan limestones and the series of intercalated limestone beddings found both at surface and in mine workings north of the Lead Silver Mines property are believed to be much higher in the stratigraphical column of the Bingham district than the Commercial and Jordan. Therefore they have locally been named the Midas and Bemis to correspond with the name of the group of claims on which they outcrop.

The sills of porphyry, Fortune and Winebago that extend from the main Utah Copper porphyry northeasterly to lower Bingham Canyon into the Bemis property appear to be of younger geological age than the North fault since they penetrate it.

Also included in the Lead Silver Mines property is the Mammoth group of ______ claims situated between the eastern portion of the Lark property and the Fortuna group of the Montana Bingham Consolidated Company. In early days a narrow bedded fissure with quartzite wall was exploited by an incline shaft and a tunnel driven southwesterly from its portal on the Oak Brush claim in Keystone Gulch. This bedded fissure is located about ______ feet stratigraphically above the Commercial limestone and on surface can be traced northeasterly from Copper Gulch practically to the Keystone Gulch. There does not appear to be any limestone related to the bedding which is composed of altered quartzite containing small amounts of gold. At the outcrop the incline shaft for a short distance shows gold enrichments which lessees, by sorting, have made small shipments assaying approximately one half ounce [per ton] in gold. The tunnel, however, discloses an altered quartzite containing a little pyrite and averaging about two dollars in gold. A small cyanide mill was erected in early days near the portal of the tunnel and it is reported to [have] treated the development tonnage and small amounts of stoping ore, but the operation was unsuccessful.

The Brooks property comprises ________ claims located on quartzite situated between the Extra Sessions group and the northerly extension of the Fortuna porphyry sill. A tunnel driven northward from the north slope of Keystone Gulch discloses a stained altered calcareous sandstone but no ore was found.

The Keystone group comprises _______ claims that cover the northerly extension of the outcrop of the Fortuna sill situated north from Keystone Gulch. In early days _________ Prichard and associates drove the Chester tunnel from the north slope of Keystone Gulch northerly along the porphyry sill but failed to disclose ore. However, an incline shaft sunk about 75 feet from surface on a showing of oxidized copper disclosed small bunches of copper carbonates.

In the upper Butterfield Canyon area of the Bingham district the US Company acquired from the Albert Holden estate the Osceola and Lucky Boy group of ______ claims located in _____________ Gulch and detached from the company's other holdings.

From the south side of _________ Gulch a series of tunnels driven southwesterly disclose the persistence of a strong fracture zone at the contact of quartzite with ______ to a depth of about 500 feet below the outcrop. The vein dips northwestward at about 20 degrees into the hill and the tunnels all disclosed downward continuations of lead-zinc ore containing appreciable amounts of gold and silver occurring in minable sized pipes. The outcrop has been exploited by lessees for a siliceous ore containing gold and manganese.

In ________ the entire waste dump accumulated on the property from early day selective mining was shipped amounting to ________ tons with net smelter returns of __________.

In 1945 the Bingham Lead group of mining claims comprising _________ acres was acquired from James Hogle interests located at the junction of Yosemite Gulch with Butterfield Canyon at the eastern base of the Oquirrh Range. This group covers the outcrops of the "A", "B", "C", and "D" limestone members, of which the "B" and "D" have been highly productive in the US mine.

The sedimentary rocks toward the southwest are partially interrupted by a relatively large intrusive of porphyry and on surface there are bold outcrops of quartzite showing intense fissuring, highly stained and scattered mineralization. The property also includes the southerly projection of the Chicago fissure which strikes _______ and dips at about _______ degrees ______________ into the mountain. This fissure has been developed in the Chicago claim by a short tunnel driven from the north slope of Yosemite Gulch and a shaft on the dip of the fissure to a depth of _____ feet. This work discloses a sinuous pipe of low-grade lead-zinc ore in the "A" limestone. The carbonate lead ore mined in early days is reported to have carried high silver values. In recent years the development in the Chicago claim has been carried on solely by lessees who confined their work to merely exploiting the pipe of ore that remained from early day mining and have not performed any development outside of the old workings. The carbonate ores give way to sulfides at a very shallow depth. This Chicago claim is an early day patent _______ feet wide and ________ feet long and from all indications the apex of the fissure passes out of the claim's northerly end-line and from the westerly side-line at a point in the bottom of Yosemite Gulch where there is considerable detritus deposited. This Chicago claim is an isolated acreage apparently owned by heirs of old estates living in the east but the title to it has not been definitely fixed even after considerable effort on the part of the Hogle interests prior to and at the time of the acquisition of the Bingham Lead group by the USCo.

The development of this group of claims by the Bingham Lead Company was practically confined to the driving of the _______ tunnel with its portal on the south side of Yosemite Gulch. The tunnel was driven for _______ feet on a _____________ course and practically followed the footwall contact of the "B" limestone the entire length. This work fails to disclose any mineralization, however, the contact is well defined and the limestone extensively altered to a soft brown material.

The Kremlin group of mining claims comprising _______ acres located on the north slope of Yosemite Gulch at the eastern base of the Oquirrh Range adjoins the Bingham Lead group on the north and was acquired [by USCo] in 1945.

The surface in most part is covered by bench gravel and its development has been rather of a perfunctory nature to meet patent requirements. It is quite probable that northeasterly extensions of the sedimentary rocks including the "A", "B", "C" and "D" limestones exist underneath the gravel.

The National group of mining claims comprising ________ acres located on the south slope of Yosemite Gulch and extending southerly over the ridge into Saints Rest Gulch adjoins the Kremlin, Bingham Lead, Badger and Bingham Orleans groups.

In most part this group covers the quartzite between the "A" limestone and Lower Intermediate limestone, however, the quartzite is interrupted by intrusions of porphyry.

On the Burlington claim of this group a tunnel with its portal on the south side of Yosemite Gulch was driven in early days southeasterly about _______ feet on a fissure that dips _________. This work discloses lead-zinc ore occurring in bunches between quartzite walls. At the face the tunnel encountered porphyry and the small amount of work failed to disclose the fissure persisting in the porphyry.

The explorations of the limestone members and fissures disclosed at surface on the Bingham Lead, Kremlin, and National groups can be effectively performed on their northwest dips at depth from workings of the Lark mine and such exploration is underway on the 1000 vertical level below the Mascotte Tunnel.

The Ohio Copper group of claims acquired in 1951, comprises ______ acres of mineral ground located on the east slope of upper Bingham Canyon and extends from the canyon floor up to the ridge above Copper Gulch. These claims were located in early days to cover outcrops of three bedded veins with quartzite walls that strike nearly east-west and dip northward at about 38 degrees. The veins, named from the claims holding their apices, are the What Cheer stratigraphically the lower, the Alls Well, the middle and the Elvina, the upper one. The rock formation that includes the veins is a shattered quartzite that lies at the southeast contact of the immense disseminated copper deposit of the Utah Copper porphyry and in places there are tongues of the porphyry through the quartzite mass.

In _________ William Cunningham, a prominent Tintic operator and Frank Cook, a mining engineer, organized the Columbia Mining Company and the consolidation of a number of claims covering these veins and the mass of shattered quartzite between the veins which was mineralized in somewhat the same manner as the adjoining Utah Copper ground.

The Columbia mine was developed by driving a tunnel (Cunningham Tunnel) with its portal on the east slope of upper Bingham Canyon, about opposite Copper Center Gulch. This tunnel cut the above three veins and drifts were extended east and west along the veins. The position of these veins in the Bingham stratigraphical column correspond closely with the Fortuna series developed to the east in the Fortuna mine and named the Weasel, Mayflower and Fortuna veins, however tongues of porphyry and faulting appear to have interrupted their continuity and they have not positively been traced on surface or developed by underground workings from one mine to the other.

The early day operations in the Columbia mine at first exploited the ore occurring in the form of seams along the three veins. The ore was a pyritic sulphide of copper of varying thickness from one foot to sixteen feet and by selective mining a high grade product carrying an appreciable gold content was shipped while the lower grade material was segregated from practically pure waste and placed separately on the mine dump. The middle or Alls Well vein is the stronger, more mineralized and was more extensively developed than the others. The country rock between the veins discloses the mineralization extending into it and was quite pronounced in the hanging-wall of the Alls Well vein for about 100 feet.

In 1903 adjoining ground to the Columbia mine was acquired and the Ohio Copper Company was organized by Henry Catrow interests of Ohio and Thomas Weir of Salt Lake, which took over the property.

An extensive development program was carried on by the new owners especially regarding the possibilities of the disseminated copper ores in the quartzite country rock between the three veins. The old Winamuck mill situated opposite the D&RG depot in lower Bingham was re-equipped to treat about 125 tons of second-class ore a day, and the first-class ore was shipped to the Bingham Consolidated smelter at Midvale, then known as Bingham Junction.

By 1906 the Ohio Copper Company had developed the Ohio Copper disseminated copper orebody in quartzite down to the 400 level indicating a large tonnage over a thickness of about 400 feet carrying an average of 1.64 percent copper. It was then that F. Augustus Heinze on recommendation of his engineers acquired a controlling interest in the property. He immediately started an extensive program of development of the orebody, the extension of the Mascotte Tunnel about 4000 feet to a point of connection with a proposed three compartment incline from surface and the construction of a proposed 6000 tons per day concentrator at Lark, Utah.

The Winamuck mill in lower Bingham was used as an experimental plant treating the development muck in the preparation of the Ohio orebody for the block caving system of mining and the treatment of the mine dump segregated from previous operations. The results obtained from this plant in large part determined the flow sheet for the proposed new mill at Lark.

A stadia survey covering a large area below the town of Lark was made which provided the necessary information to locate the mill site, railroad spurs and tailings pond.

Excavation for a concentrator first of 3000 tons per day was started in March 1907 and by November the concentrator was about completed except for the installation of equipment. Concurrently with the mill construction the Mascotte tunnel extension was completed. Also, the Ohio Incline shaft of three compartment on a dip of 49 degrees and 30 minutes located in the footwall of the orebody was completed from surface down to the Mascotte Tunnel, a length of _________ feet. Sinking of the incline had attained a depth of about 1100 feet when raising from the Mascotte Tunnel made a connection.

But in the fall of 1907, the "money panic" prevented Mr. Heinze from continuing and the entire operation was shut down. Operations were not resumed until early in 1909 when Mr. Heinze, with an abiding faith in the Ohio property, had sold other of his interests which enabled him to finance the completion of the Ohio project and by the summer of 1909 the mill was put into operation.

The use of copper had become associated with both our domestic and industrial lives in many ways. However production had kept pace with the increase of the national and world demand and in the early months of 1914 European purchase created an active market for American copper which encouraged the Ohio management to continue its operation. The operation had not been successful due mostly to the low grade ore as mined by the block caving system. A record of 13 tons per man-shift was attained but in many respects the expansion in the blocks of ore caved was in the experimental stage and there resulted considerable dilution both from the inclusion of low grade material, wall rock and the channeling up to the cap rock in the drawing process. The presence of the oxidized cap rock along with heads around 12 pounds of copper per ton resulted in poor extraction in the mill.

The actual outbreak of World War changed the situation for the worse overnight when exports ceased and the copper industry was hit hard and the Ohio property closed down. However, the needs of war and great domestic demand for copper raised the price and by the end of 1915 it reached 23 per pound. Whereupon Alfred Frank, a former Manager of the Ohio Company, and Salt Lake associates obtained a lease of the Ohio Copper property. And with the participation of the United States in the war, the price of copper rose to 33 a pound. The lessees by a minimum of development and preparation for mining and capital expense were able to make substantial profits at these unprecedented copper prices, and pay royalties to the company.

At the expiration of the lease period the company resumed operations and immediately remodeled the mill for flotation. Hardly had the flotation mill got underway with the coming of peace in November 1918, the United States government had accumulated a large surplus of copper and the demand of copper was reduced at such an accelerated rate that the copper companies had to reverse their production programs with many like the Utah Copper and Ohio Copper closing down.

There did not appear any chance of the Ohio Copper Company to ever again resume operation of its mill so it began to salvage what it could in the dismantling and sale of the mill equipment. Their only revenue was from the haulage of Bingham Mines Company ore and waste through the Mascotte tunnel. By 1921 lessees in Bingham had demonstrated the feasibility of precipitating the copper from percolating waters that escaped from the immense dumps of overburden deposited in the gulches tributary to Bingham Canyon. It so happened that the Utah Copper Company had deposited an immense tonnage of relatively good grade carbonate copper ores in the caved areas at surface produced by the mining operations of the Ohio Company, so as to maintain the grade of the Utah Copper H line on the surface of the Ohio property. The water from natural sources percolated through these dumps and the broken copper bearing cap rock and took into solution certain copper minerals. Such copper laden waters found their way through the Ohio mine workings to the Mascotte tunnel level. In an experimental plant the Ohio management successfully collected these waters and precipitated the copper in solution on de-tinned scrap iron in the form of tin can cuttings. Based upon the results from natural sources the company pumped water from upper Bingham Creek and distributed it over the fills which greatly augmented not only the volume but the copper content of the copper-laden waters collected on the Mascotte tunnel. The results were exceptionally successful so the precipitating plant was enlarged and a series of pumps operated automatically were installed in the Ohio Copper inclined shaft which pumped the tailing water from the precipitating plant erected on the Mascotte tunnel upon the fills at surface. To dilute the iron content, particularly which was in solution in the tailing water, an arrangement was made with the Bingham Mines Company whereby a large portion of the water from its pumping operations below the Mascotte tunnel was picked up and conveyed to the Ohio pump system.

From the beginning and for the period from 1923 to 1931 this leaching operation was very successful with a production of about 40,000,000 pounds of copper and enabled the Ohio Company to pay off its debts and simplify the company structure by retiring a bond issue and acquiring the Mascotte tunnel from a separate company, the Bingham Central Railway Company, an organization originally reported to be wholly owned by F. Augustus Heinze.

Subsequent to 1931 the leaching of the fills and caved areas was employed periodically in order to allow for oxidation of the copper minerals during the rest periods. However this procedure was uneconomical and was finally discontinued. In 1929[?] the Ohio Company investigated the possibilities of the Commercial and Jordan limestones and Lark-Yosemite vein projecting down dip beneath its property. However, the company's engineers realized that these limestones and Lark-Yosemite vein up dip from the Ohio property would outcrop at surface within mining claims either owned or controlled by the Bingham Mines Company. In an effort to avoid a conflict as to the ownership of ores that may be found in these limestones and vein beneath its property and also settle an existing issue between the Montana Bingham Company, a subsidiary of the Bingham Mines Company, concerning the ownership of orebodies mined by the Montana Bingham Company beneath the Ohio property; and to which the Montana Bingham Company claimed by virtue of it holding the apex and its extra-lateral rights, the following agreements between the three companies dated ______________ were consummated:

An agreement between the Ohio Company and Montana Bingham Company provides the latter company extra-lateral rights on its veins under the property of the Ohio Company easterly of a certain described line and also a certain vertical boundary.

An agreement between the Bingham Mines Company and the Ohio Company provides for a vertical boundary applicable to only the common boundary between the two properties. This common boundary is confined to a short line at the western end of the Bingham Mines property and in an area wherein there are segments of the limestones and Lark-Yosemite vein on their dips which on account of the location of the mining claims covering their apices, their extra-lateral rights fail in most part to cover.

An agreement between the Montana Company and the Bingham Mines Company provides the latter company mining rights on a described segment of the Lark vein beneath the Montana Bingham property. Although the Bingham Mines mining claims completely cover the apex of the Lark vein the divergence of the end-lines of two adjoining claims produce such segment down dip that is not too clearly covered by extra-lateral rights of another claim.

The Ohio company then carried on a diamond drilling program from the Mascotte Tunnel level which disclosed the presence of the two limestones below the tunnel, although to a large degree interrupted by porphyry intrusions. One of the holes showed about nine feet of core carrying a good grade of lead-zinc at approximately 500 feet vertically below the Mascotte tunnel in the Commercial limestone. So based upon the presence of these limestone measures which were highly productive in the district and possibilities of the Lark-Yosemite vein along with the indications of lead-zinc in the drill hole, a program of development got underway.

An incline shaft of three compartments with its collar on the Mascotte Tunnel was sunk on a dip of ______ degrees in the footwall of the Commercial limestone for 750 feet. On the 750 level a crosscut was driven northerly _____ feet to the Commercial limestone and connected with the drill hole whose core indicated a good thickness of lead-zinc ore at this place. The connection, however, was a great disappointment in that the hole had followed a relatively narrow seam of ore. Considerable development was carried on both easterly and westerly in this limestone and along the footwall and hanging-wall. In large part the work showed mineralization of copper and occasional bunches of lead-zinc ore. However the ore occurrences were either too low grade or too small to be profitably exploited. Also a crosscut on this 750 level was driven southerly to the Lark vein and Jordan limestone. Very little work was done on the Lark vein which at this horizon, although a strong structure carried low grade pyrite similar to the ore occurrences up dip in the lower levels of the Yosemite No.1 mine of the Bingham Mines Company.

The downward continuation of the Brooklyn oreshoot in the Bingham Mines property was disclosed at the footwall of the Jordan limestone on this 750 level. Considerable development and some mining was carried on at the level and by raising in the orebody. The orebody is of good minable thickness and lateral extent but the work done here was entirely in low grade pyritic copper material except for bunches of copper-gold ore which were mined selectively.

The venture did not appear to offer any encouragement for success and the mining operation was discontinued. However, in _______ the USCo in its Lark operation extended the 500 vertical level westerly along the footwall of the Jordan limestone and made connection by a short raise with the Ohio 750 level. The USCo then obtained a lease from the Ohio Company on a block of ground containing the Brooklyn oreshoot. Under the lease a few thousand tons of pyritic copper gold ore was produced which netted a small profit.

On the 300 level below the Mascotte tunnel of the Bingham Mines workings, lead-zinc ore about 5 feet thick and 12 feet wide was mined and occurs at the westerly side of the low grade pyritic copper material, however, neither the work of the Ohio or USCo disclosed a downward continuation of the lead shoot which was continuous from surface to a depth of 2300 feet on its dip. It is just possible the lead-zinc shoot could have been missed in the developments on the US 500 and Ohio 750 level.

Concurrently with the underground developments below the Mascotte tunnel level on the limestone members the Ohio Company continued its leaching operation in the fills and stoped areas of its disseminated copper deposit. However, as this operation continued the copper laden waters collected on the Mascotte tunnel became progressively lower grade and finally unprofitable; although only a small percentage of the estimated copper content had been recovered by leaching. With the funds derived from the leaching operation expended the Ohio Company sold the Ohio property from surface down to a horizontal plane 50 feet above the Mascotte Tunnel level to the Kennecott Corporation. This block of ground was necessary for the expansion of the Utah Copper pit in order to made available a large portion of the Utah Copper orebody at depth by the pit system of mining.

Once again financed, the Ohio Company undertook other ventures, one the treatment of the tailings impounded below Lark from the milling operation previously carried on. A sampling of the tailings estimated at about 500,000 tons indicated an average copper content of about 8.4 pounds per ton, about 69 percent as sulfides and 31 percent as acid water soluble copper minerals. The other included an option on the Big Indian copper deposit in sandstone located in the LaSalle Mountains in southeastern Utah. On the basis of laboratory tests a pilot plant of 200 tons capacity was constructed employing straight flotation. No provision had been made to handle the water soluble copper and the operation was unsuccessful. So with the lower copper prices in 1931 the testing was discontinued.

With the stimulus of higher copper prices in 1937, a review of metallurgical possibilities for the economic treatment of the tailings showed that a method of leach-precipitating-flotation process was profitable. This method involved leaching of the soluble copper, its precipitation on metallic iron in the pulp, followed by flotation of the copper precipitate with the copper sulfides in the same circuit. The pilot plant situated about 3/4 of a mile below the tailings was equipped for the treatment of 1000 tons of tailings per day.

The tailings consisted of sands and slimes with the bulk of the copper in the slimes, however in the sluicing it was attempted to hold the mill feed to the average copper content of the tailings as possible. Also this procedure had its advantages in that the low grade sands would not flow in the launders on the grade established between the ponds and mill without being mixed with an equal amount of slime. And besides the advantage to the mill of a uniform grade of feed the sands appear to have had a beneficial effect in conditioning the minerals in the higher grade slime. The sluicing of the tailings down to the mill was done by water obtained from the Mascotte Tunnel by an arrangement with the US Co. This mine water was conveyed across the upper part of the tailings pond to the pressure pumps. The pressure pumps delivered the water to the two monitors at a pressure of 90 pounds per square inch.

This plant was operated from ______ to _______ and treated approximately _______ tons of tailings which produced __________ pounds of copper with an average of approximately ________ percent recovery.

A typical month's operation in 1940 showed the following results:

Tonnage treated-30,590 Production-482 tons of concentrates

Density of feed-29.4% solids Assay of concentrates-gold 0.08 oz.

Assay of heads-0.502% copper Silver 0.78 oz. copper 22.56%

Ratio of concentration 63:1 Flotation recovery 78.5%

Overall operating cost = 30.6885 per ton or 4.4401 per net pound of copper.

This tailings operation was an innovation in that the sulfides and copper cement were floated together by the use of a single circuit to obtain the best results on the mixture instead of two separate circuits which is used at Miami, Arizona, where each circuit is adjusted for one type of flotation. Also, it provided an overall profit of about $300,000 after amortization of capital investment, however this profit about offset the loss from the Big Indian venture in southeastern Utah.

The Ohio Copper Company again turned its attention back to the possibilities of the Commercial limestone and Lark-Yosemite vein. The developments in the Commercial limestone during the previous operation on the 750 level had disclosed considerable mineralization over a relatively large extent but was too scattered for profitable mining. Also there was disclosed certain geological features, one in particular is the close proximity of igneous intrusions to the limestones and Lark-Yosemite vein at the 750 level horizon. It was the opinion of some as being not as favorable for ore as would be found where the limestones were some greater distance from the igneous intrusions. The intrusions indicated a nearly vertical position while the limestones dipped flatly to the north and away from the intrusions at greater depth in this area.

Therefore a development program at depth was planned. To conserve its finances as much as possible the Inclined shaft below the Mascotte tunnel was reduced to two compartments and extended about 350 feet, with a station at the 1100 level. The Lark-Yosemite vein was intersected in the incline at approximately the 900 level showing a strong structure about 6 feet thick carrying low grade copper pyritic material with narrow seams of lead-zinc. From the 1100 station a crosscut northerly cut the Lark-Yosemite vein at about 50 feet and the footwall contact of the Commercial limestone at about 200 feet and was stopped in this limestone at about 220 feet from the shaft.

The crosscut disclosed well-defined vein structures on the Lark-Yosemite vein and the footwall of the Commercial limestone, carrying low-grade copper pyritic material with small bunches of lead-zinc.

The Ohio company had made a contract with the USSR&MCo for the treatment of its ores but ran out of funds before its development program got well underway on the 1100 level. An arrangement was then made between the two companies for a specified total amount to be advanced by the USCo to cover the Ohio Company's expenses for drifting along the Lark-Yosemite vein and the footwall contact of the Commercial limestone as projected by the Ohio Company. The Ohio Company's actual costs of drifting exceeded the estimate, therefore the USCo advanced additional funds in order to complete the Ohio's development program.

The drifting disclosed continuities of mineralized structures on both the Lark-Yosemite vein and a well defined vein at the footwall contact of the Commercial limestone, which at places yielded small tonnages of lead-zinc ore and copper-gold ore. These showings of ore were exploited for short distances above the level but failed to open up into profitable orebodies although the work produced ______ tons.

The advances of money made by the USCo were secured by notes of the Ohio Company. Prior to the due date on the notes with extensions of time by the USCo the Ohio management endeavored to raise the amount of the notes by assessing the Ohio Company stockholders. However, the stockholders failed to come through so on _____________ the USCo acquired the Ohio Company's property in lieu of payment of the notes held by the USCo.

The United Bingham Copper Mining Company group of claims comprising ________ acres is located along the east slope of the Oquirrh Range and extending from the crest easterly about _______ feet, and northerly from the south slope of Keystone Gulch to the upper parts of McGuire and Winamuck gulches which cut the southeasterly side of Bingham Canyon.

The country rock in most part is quartzite except for a sill of porphyry that appears to extend from the main intrusive body of upper Bingham northeasterly through the Winebago claim of the Fortune group into the Illinois Mine of the United Bingham group on the south slope of Keystone Gulch. From the bottom of Keystone Gulch this sill can be traced on a northeasterly to a northerly course through the Bingham Congor group of claims thence into the old Midland Mine of the Bemis property located on the southeast slope of lower Bingham Canyon. This sill, situated near the top of the stratigraphical column, is between lentils of a calcareous member and an underlying quartzite.

In early days, Messrs. Prichard, Hall and Coffman developed the Illinois mine by driving two tunnels from the south side of Keystone Gulch at elevations of about 200 feet apart in a southerly direction for approximately 500 feet each. The tunnels were designed to follow the contact of the sill of porphyry with the calcareous member but failed to disclose an orebody; however, small seams of pyrite were reported to have been cut.

The northerly portion of this group extends from the southeast ridge above Bingham Canyon northwesterly down into the upper parts of McGuire and Winamuck gulches. In early days this portion comprised a group of mining claims covering quartzite country rock at practically the top of the stratigraphical column exposed in the Bingham district.

In early days this area was developed largely by Joe Edmunds and associates. The development consisted of the Copper Glance tunnel and ____________ tunnel driven ___________ from McGuire Gulch.



The Copper Glance vein is a bedded vein with quartzite walls and is the upper vein in the group _________ feet stratigraphically above the Manefay bedded vein which is the other known vein in this portion of the United Bingham group.

The Montana Bingham tunnel cut the Copper Glance vein, ______ feet from its portal, _________ approximately ________ feet measured on its dip from surface. On this tunnel level _______ feet of drifting was done north ________ degrees east along the vein disclosing a well-defined bedded vein dipping at approximately ________ degrees westerly and carrying a continuous seam of copper pyritic ore about six inches thick.

The Manefay vein outcrops on the ridge east of and above Bingham Canyon and at the top of Midas Gulch. It also is a bedded vein whose stratigraphical position is about ______ feet above the Winebago sill of the Fortune group. In early days an incline shaft was sunk on the dip of the vein for approximately _______ feet and development laterally along the vein was carried on but failed to disclose mining widths of carbonate ores.

The Montana Bingham tunnel cut the Manefay vein, _______ feet from its portal, approximately _______ feet measured on its dip from surface. On this tunnel level _______ feet of drifting was carried on north _______ degrees east along the vein disclosing a well-defined bedded vein dipping at approximately _______ degrees westerly and carrying a continuous seam of copper pyritic ore about one foot thick.

In ________ Glen Bothwell and _______ McCona __________ early day operators in the Mercur mining district became interested in the possibilities of the Bingham district, and by acquisitions of individual claims and small groups organized the United Bingham Copper Company in _______ and the Bingham Amalgamated Mining Company in _________. In ________ the latter company under a reorganization was taken over by a new company, the Bingham Congor Mining Company.

The Bingham Congor Mining Company's properties comprised two groups of mining claims, one which includes the Congor mine is situated on the east slope of the Oquirrh Range extending northerly from the bottom of Keystone Gulch, while the other group, separated from the first by property of the United Bingham Copper Company is also situated on the east slope of the Oquirrh Range in and near the top of Midas Gulch and extending northerly up to the ridge forming the southeast side of lower Bingham Canyon.

The most important development of the two groups is the Congor mine located on a contact of the northerly extension of the Winebago porphyry sill with lentils of overlying black limestone or calcareous quartzite in country rock of quartzite. A tunnel with its portal at a very prominent outcrop on the north side of Keystone Gulch was driven northward along the contact for about 900 feet and it is reported disclosed copper ore in the form of small lentils from one to four feet thick and a zone, about 25 feet in thickness, between quartzite walls which is formed by mineralized porphyry about 15 feet thick, an overlying band of gange carrying a band of ore 1 to 4 feet in thickness, and a calcareous quartzite or limestone 12 feet in thickness fissured and seamed with pyritic ore.

The main body of ore in the zone was developed at depth by an incline shaft, with its collar on the tunnel _______ feet from the portal sunk on a south 70 degrees west course for about 500 feet at an angle of 30 degrees. The incline and orebody appears to follow the line of a fissure not unlike the orebodies related to the 56 Nos.1-2 and 3 orebodies so highly productive in the Jordan limestone of the Lark mine. It is reported this orebody yielded shipments from 15 to 50 percent in copper.

Near the bottom of Keystone Gulch about ______ feet southerly from the Congor incline the Bingham Amalgamated incline was sunk on a south ______ degrees west course for _______ feet at an angle of about 30 degrees. This incline developed practically for its entire length a copper orebody occurring at the upper contact of the porphyry sill with limestone. It is reported that the enriched copper ore at depth gave way to a primary copper pyritic ore carrying about 4 percent copper. Leasers during World War I made regular shipments of this primary copper ore from operations connected with this incline.

Also it is reported that a connection underground was made from the Bingham Amalgamated incline with the Congor incline.

The Bothwell and McCona interests aided in the financing of the Montana Bingham tunnel and about _______ feet of the tunnel is underneath the properties of the Bingham Amalgamated and United Bingham Companies. At a point _______ feet from the portal the tunnel cuts the contact of the porphyry sill and overlying black limestone of the Congor mine at about _______ feet measured on the dip from surface. Certain agreements dated _____________ were made between the Montana Bingham Company and the respective Bingham Amalgamated and United Bingham Company, which among other things provided the latter two companies working rights in and through the tunnel.

From the tunnel the Bingham Amalgamated drove a raise on a _____ south ________ west course for about _______ feet at an angle of about ______ degrees following up the dip of the contact of the porphyry sill and overlying black limestone. The raise connected with the bottom of the Congor incline, but failed to disclose shipping grade of minable ore. However the line of the raise is located considerable distance northerly of the trends of the Congor mine orebody and the orebody developed in the Bingham Amalgamated incline from surface.

On the Montana Bingham tunnel a drift along the contact of the porphyry sill and overlying limestone was driven for _____ feet. This disclosed lead-zinc ore seamed with pyrite scattered in a loose gange material for a greater part of the drift. However the ore, when of minable thickness averaged, it was reported, only around 4 percent combined lead-zinc. The porphyry contact was extremely fractured and it was difficult to maintain the drift on account of swelling ground and the presence of water seepage.

At a point _______ feet from the portal the Montana Bingham tunnel cut a narrow vertical fissure in the Fortune sill of porphyry about _______ feet from its footwall contact with quartzite. A seam less than an inch thick of native copper was disclosed and drifted on north ______ east for _______ feet finally pinching out.


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