A portion of James A. Simpson's 1858 map showing Mormon fortifications in Echo Canyon and at Big Mountain.
To explore the whole map, click here. To see the map that originally accompanied the following article, click here.
Inset is an 1890s picture of Newton Tuttle (1825-1907) from Esshom, Pioneers & Prominent Men of Utah.
Utah Historical Quarterly, Oct 1954, pp. 297-320.
A Territorial Militiaman in the Utah War
Journal of Newton Tuttle
Edited by Hamilton Gardner*
Note: Click hereto access footnotes, identified in <blue>, which can be referred to as needed in a separate window..
Whatever else the Utah Expedition<1> of 1857-61 has been called, it remained for the officers and men who participated in it strictly a military operation. To them, whether of the Regular Army or of the Utah Territorial Militia, the important factor involved was the simple duty of a soldier-to obey the orders of legally constituted authority. The decisions on matters of public policy which brought about this troop movement were the sole responsibility of the President of the United States, James Buchanan. In equal measure, the determination to resist it rested in the authority of the governor of the territory, Brigham Young. The military establishment on either side did not decide the issues; they merely followed instructions.
The real objective story of the expedition, unobscured by political and religious partisanship, remains to be told. But from the military point of view, a substantial beginning has already been made. The diaries of two participating United States Army officers have been published, both by state historical societies.<2> It is now appropriate that the journal of a Utah militiamen should be presented. The diarist was Newton Tuttle, of Bountiful. Born at New Haven, Connecticut, April 13, 1825, the son of Zerah [p.298] P. Tuttle and Marie Todd, he joined the Latter-day Saint Church October 13, 1850, and arrived in Utah during 1854. He died February 13, 1907.
By express direction of the President, Brevet Lieutenant General Winfield Scott, general-in-chief of the army, issued orders May 28, 1857, to mobilize the Utah Expedition at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. At a much later date, August 29, Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston,<3> 2d Cavalry, was named to command it. First to start late in June were numerous supply trains, loaded with provisions to last six months, and 2,000 head of cattle, all belonging to private contractors. The 10th Infantry, under command of Colonel Edmund B. Alexander, moved out July 18 and other elements followed, the last being Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke's<4> 2d Dragoons, as late as September 17. The column was therefore strung out over the Oregon Trail for hundreds of miles in Nebraska and Wyoming. Colonel Johnston departed from Fort Leavenworth one day after Cooke.
Governor Young learned of the army's approach at Silver Lake (now Brighton), in Big Cottonwood Canyon, on July 24, while he and a large group were celebrating the tenth anniversary of their arrival into the Great Salt Lake Valley. He immediately gave directives to Lieutenant General Daniel H. Wells, commanding the Utah Territorial Militia,<5> who issued a warning order August 1, to the commanding officers of the 13 Military Districts into which the territory was divided, alerting them to be prepared to move out at once for extended service in the territory. The [p.299] first unit to mobilize was from the 1st Regiment of Cavalry at Great Salt Lake City, under Colonel Robert T. Burton. On August 15, with not to exceed 100 mounted men, he marched to Fort Bridger, continued eastward, and on August 27, established contact with a supply train, which was then the head of the army column. He reported back to General Wells and maintained continuous observation. Governor Young issued a proclamation September 15, declaring martial law. In the meantime, General Wells had established field headquarters at Cache Cave in Echo Canyon, and militia units, chiefly from Great Salt Lake, Weber, Utah, Davis, Tooele, and Box Elder counties reported to him there. Such was the military situation when Newton Tuttle was called to active duty.
[August] Sat 8  in after noon a training at the Public Square
Fri 14 Just at night I went & notifyed John Ells Leiut, to be ready with his Company to March where where ever called upon to go By to Morow night with a 4 Horse team by order of Jude Allen Capt
Sat 15 I rode up to Farmington with J Allen cr to an Officer Drill & back.<7>
Mond 17 I rode up to Farmington with Jude Allen cr & back to a General Muster
Fri 21 in Morning a make out Military returns<8> & sent out 5 Men from our Company & 5 from Centerville on to the road as gards &c
Sat 29 up to Farmington with br Allen to an officir Drill
[September] Sat 5 I rode up to Farmington to a General Muster with Jude Allen & back
Sat 12 in after noon to training in br Calls field I took Command of company <9>
Mond 14 I was notified to Warn John Ellis & James O. Buckland to be ready with there Companys on Friday for a campaigne
Tues 15 fixing for a campaigne make a Shot or bulet poutch & Scabard
Thurs 17 Snow on Mountains get ready for a campaigne
Fri 18 we started out for our campaigne.<10> the Battalion was formed over by John Tilfords we took Dinner & then Marched Down to br Stones field & camped over night
Sat 19 A call was Made on our Battalion for four horses, waggon Harnesses, our beef & 2 men to go back on the road we broke up camp & went home I made out the returns of our campaigne
Fri 25 I was called to go back on the road to fight the Soldiers. We got organised in evening & Drove to city & camped back of Tithing office
Sat 26 8 o clock A. M. We Started out on the road with 12 Men of our company Jude Allen Capt. Newton Tuttle Adjutent, & under the Command of Major J. D. T, McAllister <11> I took 32 lb of crackers & Buisket, I was Detailed back to city to get Some Horse Shoes & another man with me we got the Shoes and Started on. We Drove over the Little Mountain to Old Hatches & Baited our Horses &c we Drove over the big Mountain & camped a going up the Mountain Harvy Perkins broke His reach & had to put in an other
S 27 J. K. Crosby & A Stokers Horses gone & some others we Drove on a most to the Webber & baited, 2 Horses Died We then Drove on & crossed the Weber & on up to Echoe Kanyon & camped. Just as we were a going to bed Wm Van Ettene came in from Bridger with an express <12> & a freight waggon Master by the name of Jones from the enemy. He said the soldiers were on Hams fork & a Driving 30 miles a Day.<13> He ordered us to start right on, we Started & drove to Cashe Cave & got there Just at Day light.
Mond 28 We got breakfust left our waggons I left my Sack of Crackers, 2 Spoons, Keg, coat, & waggon cover We then packed our Blankets & Drove on crossed yellow creek Drove on to the quakeing asp grove & Stoped one hour or till Sunset we then Drove on & Past a man ox express for the City crossed big Mudy & Past Wm H. Waltons train of flour for the freighters of the Soldiers stuff at the Soda Springs We camped on Little Mudy a bought 11 o clock p m their was a lot of our boys camped Here from Bridger
Tues 29 we drove on crossed Spring creek & on to Bridger in the Morning before Breakfust we had to cook our Breakfust with out any kettle or any thing else to cook in. I then fixed my things & Shod Jude Allens Horse I got Some paper &c at Fort. I stood guard from 12 till 4 1/2 past A. M
Wedn 30 In camp we Drilled a Spell. I Shod Wm Woodard Horse In after noon packed & moved up Black fork 1 mile & camped Gen D. H. Wells & Staff came out to Bridger
[October] Thurs 1 In camp I went Down to fort & got bag &c a long towards night our horses were got up & we rode Down to fort & Drilled a while, had some Remarks by D. H. Wells. G A Smith & J Taylor prayer by D. H. Wells, we then went back to camp packed up & went up blacks fork 1 mile farther & camped
Fri 2 After breakfust we Drove Down to Fort their was 50 men picked out to go with Lot Smith to Green river they took my Horse & I took br Hornses of Kaysville; then they picked out 50 more with my Self to go back or Down to Hams fork to Spy <14> round the enemys camp &c the 20 men that was sent Down a head of us was to come back. An express came in from city & they Said Wm Simons was Shot in Echo Kanyon by one of our Men carelessly or he shot at him thinking he was so far of that he could not hit him. It was on the bluff that I went on to, where we camped the night that Wm Van Ettene came to us on an Express for the City Gen D. H. Wells blessed us & we Started out a bought 3 P. M. Drove on crossed Smiths fork & on a bought 20 miles from Fort Bridger & camped on Blacks fork. John McCarthy got 5 Head of enemys cattle & fetched in to Bridger Just before we started out Fort Bridger Oct 2nd 1857. Under command of Lot Smith Philo Dibble jr account of his trip Wedn Sept 30th In After noon went with 9 other men Down on to Blacks fork 15 miles below bridger 3 men Sent to Spy out the enemys camp; Milo Andrews came out to relieve us, our 3 men got back from the enemys camp Fri 2 we went back to Bridger & then we Started back with Lot Smith & 50 men in all for Green river we went down on to Hams fork & camped 33 miles
Sat 3 In Morning our Spy See 5 waggons & 2 men on horse back a head of them a coming towards us from Green river we left 25 men with the pack animals. Lot took 25 & went out to them & told them to go back to the States or he would burn there waggons,<15> we then went on to green river & camped 1 [p.305] mile below the road, their was a large camp of Soldiers up by the road but we could not get a chance to Stampead their animals
S 4 25 of us went on to big Sandy & 25 followed after the Soldiers over on to Hams fork & took 60 head of cattle, 2 of the men that went back to big Sandy See 26 waggons we then Started back a bought 1 hour before Sun Down when we got back to Green river in stead of 26 waggons we found 51. We then burnt the two trains & went back in to the hills towards Big Sandy & camped<16>
Mond 5 We went on to the Sandy got breakfust then we went up to the road & found 24 waggons we burnt 22 of them & took 7 mules & 2 saddles we then went off from the road, To camp & one of our boys or Orson Arnold got shot through the thigh by accident the ball hit Philo Dibble under the ear & past through an other mans Hat. We were 25 miles from Green river we made a litter & packed the boy with in 6 miles of Green river & camped
Tues 6 We came on to Green river and camped all Day. Wm A. Hickman with his men took 150 head of cattle
Wedn 7 We went up to the old crossing & camped all Day or 8 miles up above Buttease Lewshaw [?]
Thurs 8 We went over on to Big Sandy We see Perry & 3 of his clerks & they Said Kinkades<17> train the nearest to us & that was 85 miles of & his was 100 Miles. 12 of us went over to Green river to get Some cattle & when they got their they found 2 hundred Soldiers camped their & they came back to camp
Fri 9 We Stayed in camp all Day at night 3 of us started to Green river to Spy. they meet 3 mountainerers & they Said the Soldiers had left Green river<18>
Sat 10 We Started back to green river we stoped to camp & 3 of us went on to Lewshaws & he said that the teamsters with 1 hun head of cattle had started for Hams fork, We then Started on & followed them up to blacks fork & could not over take them we then camped on Blacks fork a long towards Morning
Sat 3 <19> We Started & Drove 3 or 4 Miles before Breakfust Stoped got breakfust & then Drove on to the Big bend on Blacks fork & camped I was Detailed with Wm Linch after Breakfust on to the rockruins by the main road to hale all that past us; Milo Andrews with six men came in from watching the enemy. Wm H. Waltons flour waggons past on their way home from the enemys camp 2 men from our camp sent in to Bridger on express. Wm H Walton came up with 2 men they had been trying to get some of the enemys cattle but failed. the Indians had got them or 35 head; W. H. Walton reported 5 corn waggons of the enemy with 5 & 6 yoke of oxen to a waggon 3 miles below the forks of the road that had been Stoped by Lot Smith I went in to camp to let Major McAlister know it. I then went back to my post & stayed till 9 P.M. before we were relieved we then went in to camp
S 4 O. P. Rockwell, Wm A. Hickman & His Brother came in to camp from Fort bridger they have burnt Fort Suply & Bridger. I was selected with a bought 40 men to go with O. P. Rockwell & get the enemys cattle if we could if not to fire the Country we started in the morning & rode in to the hills & Lay their all Day in evening O. P. Rockwell my self & 5 or 6 other Men went in a mongst their cattle but could not stampead them so as to get them we then lay Down 1 or 2 hours & [p.307] then we rode in to the hills & round in a head of the enemy earley in the morning on Hams fork.
Mon 5 we commenced setting fire to the grass in a head of the enemy on hams fork 3 or 4 Miles & then went back in to the Hills they got scared & went of & left me & a man on picket guard we followed them 4 or 5 miles in to the hills. a bought 3 pm. we went back on to hams fork & got something to eat we had not had a chance to get any Since yesterday Morning. In eve we set fire 3 or 4 Miles More. James Walls Horse got scared hove him off & run a way he Lost my rope Stue pan his Saddle we then camped where we eat Dinner
Tues 6 In the morning after Breakfust we went to fireing the grass for 4 or 5 Miles then we went in to the hills a while O. P. Rockwell took 10 Men & went Down to spy out the enemys camp Just at night 18 men from Col. R. Burtons<20> camp came up to us. we then went back on to the bottom & camped or on Hams fork
Wedn 7 Shower O. P. Rockwell & his Men came up to camp the enemy had not Moved, we Sent George Summers & Jo Hunt up to Col. R Burtons camp for Provisions & Milo Andrews & Burdick to Gen D. H. Wells camp on express in evening a soldier came in to camp he said he had deserted from his camp I shot a squerrel & 1 at a rabbit O. P. Rockwell came back from Soldiers camp & all quiet I Stood guard from Dark till 2 p. m. [A. M.?]
Thurs 8 O. P. Rockwell 5 in all Started Down to Spy round the soldiers camp prety Soon he sent one back to have us all move over on to the big Bend on Black fork a bought [p.308] noon we Started out but left one ten to fire the country we got back on to black fork just at night. In eve O. P. R. came in & reported that the soldiers had some recrutes come up to them all quiet we have not had but a few mouth fuls to eat to Day
Fri 9 Nothing to eat we Started H. Golsborough in to the Main camp on express with the Soldier that came in to our camp J Wall Started in on foot; Two Men started to spy round the enemys camp, we started & drove over on to Mudy. Just at night our 2 Spys came in from the soldiers camp they chased them Milo Andriews came in from main camp with a mule team with provisions, some more men from Col Burtons camp with provisions & those that we left on Hams fork to fire the grass Lot Smith has burnt 74 waggons of the enemy & took some cattle; I stood guard from Dark till one o clock P. M. [A. M.?]
Sat 10 Snowed Milo Andrews & Part of our company & all of my ten Started back to fort Bridger; The rest of our Company went back Down to the big Bend on Black fork & camped. Col. T. Calister<21> was camped Just above us
S 11 rainy we got & drove up the fork 3 miles & got breakfust O. P. Rockwel & Thomas Rich Started for the enemys camp & Meet or came on to Lot Smiths camp T. Rich came back & we started & went Down to Lot Smiths camp 4 or 5 miles a bove Hams fork & camped with them, I Let Thomas Brannon take one of my Straps for a Belley gurt, I got my old Mare back. The Soldiers have Started. We Started 5 Men on express to Burtons camp & 2 men to Bridger on express; Wm A. Hickman Sent his 2 brothers in to the enemys camp & they have not got back yet, The one that was Shot on Green River was to in to City Last night or he past here for city, We sent out 2 men to see Which we the enemy had gone they have not got back
Mond 12 Snowed. Men came in to camp from Col Burton camp the two men we sent out to see which way the enemy had gone they came in & said that the enemy had gone up Hams fork we started Some men in to Bridger with the poor animals & some to get Provisions &c I went in to Lot Smiths Company & both companys started for Hams fork to Spy out the enemys [p.309] We Drove till a bought 3 P. M & came on to Hams fork right in sight of the enemys picket guard we struck in below theyer camp & took a heard of theyer cattle of a bought seven Hundred & 6 Mules we then drove till in the night & camped till Day light then we Drove on to Blacks fork & Stoped we let the enemy have l mule & some cattle to Draw one waggon up to their Main camp in evening we See singular Star or a comet in the west the enemy have took Wm A Hickman 2 Brothers Prisnors. J. H. Standiford & an other Man Sent in for more provisions
Tues 13 in camp Wm A Hickman went to see a Mountainerer to get him to go in to the enemys camp & get his brothers. O. P. Rockwell has gone in on express to Bridger we started the cattle on towards city & what men there was that wanted to go in. In evening a waggon load of provisions &c came in with more Men from Bridger. We sent 11 men back on to Hams fork to fire the country on a head of the enemy &c We killed a beef.
Wedn 14 in camp in fore noon 2 of the men came in from Hams fork they said the enemy were in camp; a bought 50 of us Started out with Lot Smith for Hams fork; T Rich with his ten went Down to green river or to B. Lewshaws & took 18 Pair of Blankets & 75 lb tobaco 3 coats & 50 lb of coffee; The rest of the company went on to Mudy. We Drove on to Hamsfork & stoped a while & got supper. I took the glass & went on to a bluff to Spy. at Dark we went back in to the Hills & camped I shot of my rifle & cleaned it
Thurs 15 we went back on to Hams fork & got Breakfust Lot Smith & 4 Men Started of up the fork to See where the enemy was they went a bought ten Miles & Sent one man back to have us come on. As we Started to go on we See a man a going past horse back & leading an other horse & Saddle he said his name was Jerry an Mountainerer he had been up to the enemys camp to see a man & they took him Prisnor for 1 or 2 Days they had just Let him go he Said that they had let one of Wm A. Hickmans brothers go. We drove on up with in 6 or 8 Miles of the enemys camp & got Dinner Just at night we rode up a most to the enemys camp we then turned back on to a bluff & took a view of theyer camp & camp fires we then rode Down a bought 1/4 of a Mile below their cattle & camped till a bought [p.310] Day light then we got up & saddled up & Lot started with his men to Make a brake on the enemys cattle or Horses if he could, I with 7 or 8 stayed back to take cair of the pack Mules
Fri 16 they rode on to a company of the enemy under the Comand of Capt Marcy,<22> Lot had a talk with him & then Lot made a retreat. I went on to a bluff & Had a good view of the enemys camp with the glass when Lot came up; to us with the Pack mules we all Made our retreat over the Hills when we were a going down a bluff they came up on us & shot at us,<23> one ball hit Mark Halls Hat & one Hit a horse on the Leg. we put back a cross the hills on to Hams fork where we camped yesterday morning & we Drove on across to Mudy where the other company with Milo Andrews was; we got their just at night, I had a box of 100 caps go of in my pouch & I shot of my rifle
Sat 17 windy in Camp Thomas Rich with ten Men started for the enemys camp. Milo Andrews with his Men went on up the Mudy further; An express came in from Bridger they Said that Major Joseph Taylor & Stowel his Adjutent the enemy have took Prisnors & theyer Pack Mules with 6 hun lbs flour I stood guard from Dark till 10 o clock it snowed
S 18 Snowed part of our company went up to Bridger. a bought noon the rest of us went up we stoped there & got Something to eat in evening we Drove up to the Isleand field on Smiths fork 7 Miles a bove Bridger & camped. H. Jackson & Reevs came in to Bridger from Riches camp a verry cold night
Mond 19 in camp all Day Lot Smith got a letter from D. H. Wells to take 50 Men & go on to bear river & watch the enemys camp
Tues 20 Snowed in camp all Day Smith got an other Letter from Gen D. H. Wells. T. Rich & his men got back from the enemys camp & he said they had turned back
Wed 21 in camp all Day I got Some things from Home I got 2 pair socks 2 rappers l pair garments &c Some of the Boys see a grisley bear & we put chase to it but it got a way
Thurs 22 in camp I went up to fort Suply & got My Horse an express came in from Hams fork the enemy was still moveing Down the fork
Fri 23 in camp 3 Men Started from Fort Suply for green River on express to Lewis Robinson, I went out in to the field & got some Millet seed, the Soldiers Down to where we took the big heard of Cattle
Sat 24 in camp I went Down to Bridger Major J. D. T. Mack Allster came in Lot Smith got a letter from him I got Deseret news of Oct l 4th to read, the Indians say that Doct Hurt Indian agent with a bout 40 Ute Indians have gone east & that they Stoped at Jack Robinsons & Mary Anns camp 7 teamsters have come in to camp from the enemy. Lewis Robinson got back from Green river he took 48 Horse & colts 36 pair of blankets &c that belonged to Yates<24> they cashed the stuff that was left of the trains we had burnt &c Some Indians came in to camp Major McAlister came up here & Lot Smith went Down to fort with him
S 25 snowed in camp Lot Smith Sent up from Bridger for Thomas Abbot & 9 of E. Pews men to come Down to Fort, he came up Just at night
Mond 26 in camp all Day Wm Maxwel came in with his company & a Prisnor. T. Butters & an other Indian from Jack Robinsons camp came in to our camp and we got them som Dinner
Tues 27 in camp an express came in from T. W. Abbot that the enemy shot at him & his men. An express came in from Gen D. H Wells for us to anoy they enemy An other express came in from D H Wells last night for Lot Smith with 50 men to go to Green river & get Some cattle that belonged to Yates.
Wedn 28 We got up our Horse & went Down to the Fort & got Some Provisions then we Started on for Green river we Drove Down a bought 12 miles & camped or a little below Smiths fork. In Evening Sidney S. Willis<25> came up with his company & camped by us
Thurs 29 we started earley & Drove on crossed the Mouth of Hams fork & across Black fork on to the south side & then struck a cross the Hills for green river 15 miles below B LewShaws we came on to Black fork a gain crossed got Dinner & then Drove on to green river got there just at Dark & camped where 2 Men were a hurding Yatese Cattle & Horse
Fri 30 we took 145 Head of cattle 7 horse & mules besides 3 that we Let the herds men have we started at Day Light & Drove over to blacks fork & got breakfust the herds men came to hear with us, after we eat we let the heards men go back & we Started on with the cattle Drove on in to the hills & stoped a while we then Drove on till Dark & camped we killed a beef. I stood guard from 12 till Sunrise
Sat 31 after breakfust we started on & Drove a cross to Blacks fork or to the Mouth of Smith fork & got Dinner & then Drove on just as we were a starting out Capt Warren Snow<26> came up with his company & Capt Wm Maxwel we Drove on just before we got to the fort, We meet John Sharp Jessey [Jeff] Hickman & a four Horse mule team with Jones the waggon master of our enemys & Mrs Mogo a going to the enemys camp & with Letters from Gov Young to Col Alexander we stoped a few minets at the Fort & then Drove up the camp or the Iland field & camped some of the boys took a Sergent of the enemy Prisner
[November] S 1 in camp Capt S. S. Willes came in with his company from the enemys camp he had took 20 Horses from the enemy Some of the Boys was called to go home with the cattle
Mondy 2 In after noon we packed up & went Down to the fort & the other Campanys. John Thompson & 10 men went Down on to Mudy. Ephram Hanks with 30 men went Down to Soldiers They shot at Warren Snows men & hit Some of there blankets &c. Just at night we moved up Blacks fork a bove the Fort 2 or 3 miles & camped
Tues 3 rainy after Breakfust Gen D. H. Wells & Sute came from the Fort & we moved up Blacks fork 2 miles further & camped. Just at night, Gosbeck<27> came in from Platt Bridge or the States with his company he had left his waggons at the Platt Bridge & Packed in he said Col A. S. Johnston<28> was this side of their on the 18th of Oct
Wedn 4 Snow & rain in camp Warren Snows company have took 105 head of cattle from the enemy. Gosbeck & his company have Started in
Thurs 5 Snowy in camp all Day John Thomson & his men got back from Mudy, I stood Picket guard from 10 till 2 o clock at night
Fri 6 Snowy in camp all Day. they Sent H. D. Height with 20 men over on to Bear river our Men Men took 275 head of the enemys cattle 1 mule & Saddle rifles &c & 1 prisnor. Just at night an express came in & Said that the Soldiers were a coming across from Hams fork to Black fork, in the evening an other express came in & they Set fire to the rest of the Stuff at the fort & a bought 12 a night they came up to us & we Packed up & moved out to wards home
Sat 7 Snowy we Drove in to a ravine of quaping asp & got breakfust we then Drove on to the Soda Spring & got Dinner.
Joseph Taylor got a way from the Soldiers in the night and came in to our camp. He Says or Joseph Taylor Says Col A. S. Johnston had come up & Says he will go in to the valley, they expect to be in to Bridger to Morrow. after Dinner we Drove over to the quake asp grove & camped
S 8 We Staied in camp till noon & then Drove on. an express came in from the city we Drove to Bear river & camped
Mond 9 Snow I was Sergent of the guard for 24 ho We Started out & Drove on to cashe cave & camped an express came from Bridger & Say the Soldiers have not Moved since the 7th
Tues 10 Snowy we Started out & Drove on to J Browns Station & camped we Sent an express to Bridger Doct Henry [actually George W.] Hickman came in from the Soldiers camp they let him go
Wedn 11 In camp they Sent Lot Smith with 20 men back to Bear river. Just at night 20 or 30 of Wm Maxwels & Warren Snows men came in to camp from the enemy. In evening John Taylor & F. D. Richards came in from city
Thurs 12 a company have gone in to city with the poor Horses I Sent J. H. Holbrooks in S. B. Kent M. W. Merrels & Peter Carney came in to camp from city with some others with Provisions & In Evening Alexander McRay came in from Bridger. the Soldiers had not Moved
Fri 13 in Camp I went & got a load of wood & Stood guard from 3 a m till Morning
Sat 14 in camp read Deseret News of Sept 30th S. B. Kent, M. W. Merrels & P. Carney went on to Bear river. 3 teams came in from city with grain. Just at Dark Henry Jackson came in from city he Said Last Tuesday the Snow fel at home l foot Deep
S 15 In camp a team went on to Bear river with grain. H Jackson went back to his Co 2 of our trains came up with grain. We had a Meting: In night an express came in from Bridger that the Soldiers were with in 7 miles of Bridger: E. B. Ward came in with an express from city.
Mond 16 on guard for 24 ho We Sent an express to Bridger & an other to city By C. H. Whelock a waggon came in from City with Letters & Papers &c 25 or 6 Horse men came in from city S. B. Kent came in from bear river & 2 other waggons that we had sent out with grain &c. In eve W. H. Walton & Hyrum Jud came in with the Davis County Cavalry a going east
Tues 17 S. B. Kent started Down to Col Merrels camp. Hyrum Jud Started for Bear river with his company
Wedn 18 In camp we Sent Some more of our poor Horses Down to the Weber. Yesterday the soldiers got up to Bridger a bought 9 A. M. an express came in by Lawrence Robinson that the Soldiers had gone up to Fort Suply; I washed Sam Henrie & 8 or 10 More Men came in to camp from Bear river in evening.
Thurs 19 In Camp I went & got a Load of wood, Sam Henrie & those that came in last night went on Down to Jones camp; Luke JohnSon & an other man with a waggon went to.
Fri 20 in camp. I took My horse & an went & got a beefs hide a bought a mile below our camp. a Company from Provo came up & went on to Bear river Col Robert Burton came in from Bearriver 25 or 6 others the Soldiers are at Bridger. J. A. Young & B. Young, jr. G. D. Grant,<29> & J Furgerson<30> have gone to City with an express; 2 waggons have gone Down to the other camp J. C. Pirkings R Yure Wm Jackson & John Bennet came in from Bear river 3 waggons in all came in just at night we have no oats for our horse I stood guard from 3 A. M. till Morning
Sat 21 in camp Col R Burton started back to Bear river & one of the Wever Boys. 2 Men came in from Bear river & Col Cook<31> had come up to Bridger Alford Kamble came in from city with 2 Horse team ox express. Some 50 men came in from bear river of Diffrent companys Just at Dark David Kimbol & Wever Started for City ox express.
S 22 In camp the Company that came in last night & Capt John Brown have gone Down to the other Stations; Ben Simons & an other Indian came in to camp from the Soldiers camp & said that theyer mules was Dieing of fast & that the Murchent trains wanted help; Just at night Isriel Ivins Charles Taylor & an other Man came in from Bear river Wm Elliot & David fair Banks came up from the other camp with 2 load of flour
Mond 23 in camp E. H. Davis took my Horse & his & went & got a load of wood; I helped shoe 5 Horse Robert Yure & Wm Jackson started for Bear river with 1 Load of flour: Wm Elliot, David Fairbanks Started for the city with two teams after grain &c John Taylor & F. D. Richards came up to our camp Just at night. & Charles Pulsifer with 4 beevs on guard from 3 A. M. till Morning
Tues 24 I got my breakfust & Edward Booth & Just at sunrise we Started with 3 beevs for Bear river to Lewis Robinson by order of our Commissary J. M. Barlow we Drove on to within a half mile of Cashe Cave went on with our cattle when we got to the needles the other side of Yellow Creek we stoped & let our horses Bate a while & then went on we got to Bear river Just as sun Sett or to Lewis Robinsons camp & Delivered up the cattle to him, we took Supper with him, Our boys had took 2 of the enemys teamsters Prisnors. the enemy ware a covering in the walls at Fort Bridger with canvass, We stayed all night with Wm McCrary & our Boys
Wedn 25 after Breakfust we went & got our horses, before we started Lewis Robinson Started with an express for Gen D. H. Wells Camp. in the night they Let the cattle that we took them get a way, a bought 11 A. M. We started back to [p.317] our camp we Drove on till we see the cattle on the hill west of Yellow Creek as we Drove on to the hill we Meet Sam Parkinson & Moyes a going to Bear river with a load of oats & flour they let us have some Oats to bate our horses & then we went & Drove the cattle back the other Side of the needles & meet 2 men a comeing after the cattle on Horses they took the Cattle & we started back for our camp we got in to camp Just after Dark in eve 2 more Men came in from Bear river In Starting back the Cattle my Horse run in to a Dog hole fell & hove me & tore my Pants &c
Thurs 26 Gen D. H. Wells G. D. Grant E. B. Ward Judson Stodard & Lewis Robinson Started towards Bear river to look out a place for a winter Station, Doct Dunyan<32> pooled a tooth for me Wm Young came in with a waggon load of Sundries on loaded & went back 4 waggons came from Bear river Robert Yure, Wm Jackson & Some others of our boys in evening an express came up from Joneses camp Gen D. H. Wells, Judson Stodard & G. D. Grant came back in evening fix my pants &c
Fri 27 Snowd &c on guard went & fetched up the Horses Robert Yure, Wm Jackson, Wm McCary, & John Bennet have gone in to city or Home Col. P. Marrels & His Adjutent came up to our Camp The 2 prisnors that our Boys got they took in to City they Sent me to get an ox to kill. I went up the kanyon a Mile & could not find it. I came back & found that he had gone up Echoe Kanyon I went after him a bought 5 Miles & came back In evening 5 or 6 Men came in from Bear river they found the ox a going east & a most to Yellow Creek they fetched him in & a teamster from the enemy by the name of John Frank, I stood guard from 11 1/2 past till 3 A. M. Edward Booth & Wm Carlos ransacked my things over &c a mean trick
Sat 28 In camp Robert Yure J. C. Perkins started for Bear river with theyer team with Provisions &c Joshuay Terry Started for City on a Mule, ten Men & a waggon went over to Yellow Creek to build a station J. Stodard Ed Booth Wm Carlos & 2 others went as pilots &c J. M Jones James Samol [Garnol?] 4 others & John Frank the Soldiers teamster with a waggon went [p.318] Down the Kanyon, a man came up from the other camp on a horse & leading an other & went on to Bear river, Albert Kamol [?] came in from City with Grain & a 4 Horse team. Wm Maxwell with 25 men from the east & 4 teamsters of the enemy. Almerin Grow & H. S. Southworth fetched in the Uncle Sams Governer's Procklimation, to our boys Camp from Fort Bridger where they had been kept Prisnors by Uncle Sams troops J Stodard & the other 4 boys came in just at Dark we sent in an express with the Governers Message. In evening Wm A. Hickman & Peter Conover came in from Bear river with a pack mule &c Grant Randol fetched the Procklimation up to our camp or Gen D. H. Wells
S 29 snowy &c Peter Conover & Wm A. Hickman & a Soldier teamster started for city. Albert Kamol Wm Fotheringham started for Yellow creek with a 4 Horse team with provisions &c for the Station Ed Booth & -Kelley Started on horse back as guides, Col. C. W. West<33> & Adjutent came up from the other camp. E. H. Davis, Alexander McRay Started Down to the other camp with a mule & G. D. Grant James Fergerson, West &c 2 Men came up from the other camp with 3 Beaver the waggon that went to yellow creek, came back. Just at night Col. R. Burton H. L. Southworth, A. Seow & 8 or ten of our Boys came in from Bear river I was on guard from 3 A. M. till Morning.
Mond 30 snowy &c J. A. Young & Brigham Young jr came in from city with an express a bought Day light. Col Thomas Callister & W. S. Snow came in from Bear river Some waggons came in from City & one with Salt<34> Jesse Earl & 5 others with 5 Pack animels Started for Bridger with 8 hun lb Salt for the Soldiers & a letter from B. Young Wm A. Walton Thomas Rich John Adams & others of our Boys came in from Bear river & went on Down the Kanyon Just at night Gen D. H. Wells & the rest of those camped here Started Down the [p.319] Kanyon to the weber. I Had to Stay here with Andrew Walton, J. C. Perkings & Ansil Hatch, to Keep up this Station till they all came in from the east
[December] Tues 1 Snowy in camp just after Breakfust Ansel Harmon came up from the other Station to our camp to get a cupple Horses we Have; We Have 2 Horses & 1 mule left
Wedn 2 in camp In Morning Abel. Gar came up from the Generals camp to get His Horse he then went back Just at night Jerome Remington & 8 teamsters from the Soldiers camp came up to our camp or from the east Remington came from Yellow Creek & a 4 Mule waggon they stayed over night
Thurs 3 In camp after breakfust Reamington & teamsters started on H. W. Brissee came up from Yellow Creek a foot he had lost his Horse we let him have H. D. Heights Horse to go on Down to Gen D. H. Wells camp. Just at night Jesse Earl, Docter Wooderd & the other 4 boys came in from Bridger. Lewis Robinson & all of the rest of the Boys from the east except 10 left at yellow creek as a pocket guard came up to our camp & Stayed all night
Fri 4 snow a bought 10. A. M. we all Started to go Down to Gen. D. H. Wells camp on Weber when we got Down their he called for 25 Men from Davis County to stay their. He said that & a few that came out first could go home we started on crossed the Weber & Drove up to J. C. Little camp & Stoped all night
Sat 5 snowy a bought Day Light we all started for Home we crossed the big mountain at 1 1/2 past P. M. one of the boys froze his feet a crossing the Mountain we Drove to foot of the Mountain & got Dinner & bated our Horses we then Drove on crossed the Little Mountain at sunsett Just as we got to city the band came out to meet us & escort us in we Marched up in front of B. Youngs & were Dismised & blessed by Gen D. H. Wells & Brigham Young I then started for home & got home in eve found Folks well & a bed.
By this time Colonel Johnston had determined to establish permanent winter stations in Camp Winfield and Camp Scott, in the vicinity of Fort Bridger. When this decision had become [p.320] apparent to General Wells, he ordered all militiamen to return to their home stations, leaving only a small observation outpost at Echo Canyon, under Captain John R. Winder.
Years later Lieutenant Colonel Cooke wrote:
Although there had been a published announcement by Colonel A. S. Johnston, commanding, that the Army would winter there on "Henry's Fork," we did not credit it, and supposed it was meant to deceive the Mormons. When I was leaving our camp to report to headquarters our arrival near Fort Bridger, I told my staff I should surely receive secret orders!
Nevertheless, the army did remain there in a fortified camp, with Fort Bridger, a stone Mormon fort, on its flank, its force increased by a large battalion of teamsters, etc., armed and organized. But to the regiment was assigned the charge of herding, in distant mountain valleys, between six and seven thousand oxen, mules, and horses, to which its own were added; there, thus peculiarly exposed to renewed raids of the Mormons, had, by day, to be spread over thousands of acres. On application for assistance the smallest company in the army was sent. . . .<35>
* Col. Gardner is an occasional contributor to the Utah Historical Quarterly, his "Report of Lieut. Col. P. St. George Cooke" having appeared in an earlier issue of this volume. A retired soldier, lawyer, and scholar, one of his main interests is the study and writing of Utah's military history. [Additional biographical note: Hamilton Gardner was born in 1888 and died in 1961.]
To learn more about the Hickman Family in the Utah War, click here.
To see the finding aid to the Hamilton Gardner Papers at UHS, click here.
To return to the Hickman Family index page, click here.
1 This is the official War Department name for the campaign. In Utah it was currently referred to as "Johnston's Army", (sometimes incorrectly as "Johnson's Army"), and the "Echo Canyon War." Elsewhere it was variously called the "Utah War," the "Contractors' War," the "Mormon Rebellion," Buchanan's Blunder," and "Secretary Floyd's Treason."
2 Otis G. Hammond, ed., The Utah Expedition, 1857-1858; Letters of Capt. Jesse A. Gove . . . (Concord, New Hampshire, 1928). "The Utah War; Journal of Albert Tracy, 1858-1860," Utah Historical Quarterly, XIII (1945). The first entry in the Tracy journal is for March 24, 1858, and consequently does not cover the present story. In evaluating all three of these journals consideration should be given to the respective religious prejudices of the writers.
3 Johnston was promoted brevet brigadier general November 18, 1857, "for meritorious conduct, in the ability, zeal, energy, and prudence displayed by him in command of the Army in Utah." George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of the officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, N. Y. (New York, 1868), I, 292. His authoritative biography is by his son, William Preston Johnston, The Life of General Albert Sidney Johnston (New York, 1878).
4 Cooke had been the commanding officer of the Mormon Battalion in the war with Mexico.
5 At this time the Utah Territorial Militia, officially designated the Nauvoo Legion since 1852, functioned under a statute passed by the Sixth Legislative Assembly on January 15, 1857. The territory was divided into 13 Military Districts, roughly corresponding to the existing counties. except that Great Salt Lake County had two, and Utah County three Military Districts. Colonel Philemon C. Merrell commanded the Davis Military District. He had served as the adjutant of the Mormon Battalion during the latter part of its enlistment.
6 The Tuttle diary extended for several years before and after the period here involved, August 8 to December 5, 1857. It included a daily financial account and occasionally employed a personal code cipher system. For purposes of brevity, certain portions of the diary have been deleted (in some cases an entire daily entry; in others a portion thereof), and only the entries relating to military service are here reproduced.
The original Tuttle diary is in the possession of Mr. Leslie Foy, who kindly gave permission for its publication. Microfilm and typescript copies of the complete diary are deposited in the library of the Utah State Historical Society.
7 Under militia regulations regular drills and musters were held on Saturday afternoons, usually once or twice a month.
8 Under the territorial statutes, commanders of companies and higher echelons were required to file returns with the adjutant general of the territory for all drills, musters, parades, and other military events. Several thousand old militia documents were brought together by the adjutant general of the state of Utah, beginning about 1910. This collection, even though far from complete, contains the only set of original source records in Utah dealing with militia history. In a search for the returns Tuttle mentioned in his diary, I located numerous muster rolls for Davis County for the summer and fall of 1857, including at least a dozen from Bountiful, but none of the company to which Tuttle belonged, with Jude Allen as captain. A return for June 27, 1857, shows Major Lot Smith in command of a "Battalion of Life Guards"
9 From available evidence Tuttle held the rank of 1st Lieutenant.
10 Note that nothing whatever is stated as to the objective of the campaign. It must be frankly admitted that if Tuttle was informed as to the over-all conditions concerning the part of the Utah Militia, in which he served for almost three months, his diary nowhere makes it evident. Later entries clearly show that he was a most indifferent observer of the significant military events which occurred around him.
11 The directive to Major McAllister appears from this order in the State Adjutant General's collection:
Head Quarters 1st Division Nauvoo Legion
and of the G S L Military District
Great Salt Lake City Aug 13th 1857
No 3 )
Brigr Genl Wm H. Kimball
I-You are hereby instructed to forthwith raise three hundred and ten men from your
Brigade with thirty days rations, to go back upon the road to protect our immigration now en-route
to this City.
II-You will detail as follows.
100 mounted men of the Life Guards
30 mounted men of the Lancers ) of Maj McAllisters
30 mounted men of the Capt. Horns Co ) commands as many mounted as can do so
150 of Col D J Ross' regiment Infantry
III-The Life Guards will start on the 14th and 15th inst.
IV-Maj McAllister with his command will start on the 18th
V-The infantry will follow by fifties as fast as they can be fitted out. On the 18th 19th &
20th if possible.
VI-Col James W Cummings of the General Staff and Robert T Burton are assigned to the
command of these forces which we are at present sending out and these troops properly officered
will report themselves to Cols J W Cummings & Robert T Burton and act under their direction and
Geo. D. Grant Maj. Genl, Com'g
J. W. Simmons Adjt
What happened was that a detachment of militiamen from south Davis County was attached to Major McAllister's command, including Tuttle's group. This may account for the absence of separate muster rolls of the Davis County men after they were mobilized.
12 Mounted messenger.
13 Captain Gove (10th Infantry), in his journal entry for this day, Hammond, op. cit., 66, states: "Sunday, Sept. 27th, 1857. On Green River. The Mormons have virtually declared war. Brigham Young has declared martial law in Salt Lake City and calls upon all his people to defend their homes. The mountain men say that a large force is in the mountains and will attack us unless we keep a sharp lookout for them."
14 Captain Gove, in his journal entry for September 28, op. cit., 67, says: "It is astonishing to see how wonderfully the Mormons have their express and spy system perfected. Their object is to stampede our animals and cripple our movements in that way. I think that is now their only intention."
15 As will appear, Major Lot Smith had undoubtedly been assigned the mission of harrassing the entire army column by driving off cattle, destroying supply trains, burning grass and obstructing the route of march, especially at fords and in passes. I have been unable to find any written orders to such effect in the archives of the State Adjutant General, but such written orders were issued to Major William Taylor, of Ogden, to perform the same tasks. Captain Gove's diary of October 16, says:
. . . Capt. M[arcy] on his return captured 2 Mormons, Major Taylor and his adjutant. They were evidently on their way to get ahead of us to burn grass. Important dispatches were found on them, one a letter of instruction from Gen. Wells, dated Cache Cave Headquarters Eastern Expedition, Oct. 4th, 1857. The purpose of the whole letter was to burn grass, stampede animals, alarm camps, cut down logs across the road, destroy fords, etc. Other letters were found. A journal also was taken, giving the plan of operations and what they had done. Oh, the villians!
General Well's complete instructions to Major Taylor are quoted in Richard W. Young, "The Nauvoo Legion," The Contributor, IX (1888), 370.
16 A complete inventory of the supplies destroyed on October 4, is found in ibid., 286.
17 Livingston & Kinkead, army sutlers and contractors of supplies.
18 Captain Gove, in a letter to his wife, op. cit., 74, 75, says:
In Camp, Harris Fork, Army for Utah,
October 9, 1857.
. . . . Three supply trains have been entirely destroyed, two on Green River and
one on Big Sandy, 10 miles before or on the other side of Green River. The supplies we
have here will last us for a long time, and if grass can be found sufficient to subsist our
animals we have nothing to fear.
19 The notations for this and the following seven days apparently are duplicate entries for the month of October.
20 Colonel Robert T. Burton, commanding officer, 1st Cavalry Regiment, Nauvoo Legion. A muster roll from the State Adjutant General's archives of "Field and Staff of the 1st Regiment, 1st Brigade, 1st Division, Nauvoo Legion," signed by the colonel on August 27, 1857, but relating to a muster of July 4, lists:
Name Rank When elected or appointed
Robt. T. BurtonColonel June 27, 1857
Wm Pitt Prin. Music
Lott Smith Major June 27, 1857
JDT McCallisterMajor June 27, 1857
21 Colonel Thomas Callister, Great Salt Lake City.
22 Captain Randolph B. Marcy, of Massachusetts.
23 In his diary entry, under date of October 16, Captain Gove says: "My company and Captain Gardner's were ordered out to go down the creek to have a brush with Lot Smith and some 60 Mormons who were approaching our trains. We went about five miles, saw them well mounted, but not near enough to do any execution." Op. cit., 78.
24 Richard Yates, a trader on the Green River, sold powder to the Army and was suspected of being a spy. He was taken prisoner by the Mormon Militia and killed while being taken to Salt Lake City. For conflicting stories concerning this incident see Daniel W. Jones, Forty Years Among the Indians (Salt Lake City, 1890), 129-30; J. H. Beadle, ed., Brigham's Destroying Angel: Being the Life, Confession, and Startling Disclosures of the Notorious Bill Hickman (Salt Lake City, 1904), 122-27; and Tracy, op. cit., 96-97.
25 Captain William Sidney Smith Willes, Mormon Battalion member, now in command of a mounted company from Lehi.
26 Major Warren Snow, formerly an officer in the original Nauvoo Legion of Illinois, and active in organizing the early Utah Militia, first at Great Salt Lake City and later at Manti.
27 Probably Nicholas Groesbeck of Great Salt Lake City.
28 Colonel Johnston arrived at Colonel Alexander's headquarters near Fort Bridger on Tuesday, November 3. Under date of November 2, Captain Gove wrote in his journal: "I hear it rumored that Col. J. will endeavor to go into Salt Lake City this fall." Op. cit., 89.
29 Major General George D. Grant, brother of Jedediah M. Grant, one of the earliest Utah Militia officers of high rank, and currently in command of the 1st Division, Nauvoo Legion.
30 Brigadier General James Ferguson, formerly sergeant major of the Mormon Battalion, and adjutant general of the Utah Militia since its beginning under the State of Deseret in 1849.
31 Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, with six companies of the 2d Dragoons, arrived at army headquarters at Camp Scott, near Fort Bridger, on November 19. His official daily journal of the march was published in Colonel Theophilus F. Rodenbough, From Everglades to Canon with the Second Dragoons (New York, 1875), 185-92. Due to the late start from Fort Leavenworth, the dragoons had encountered extremely adverse weather conditions in the mountains. Cooke's handling of his men and animals was so skillful as to win the commendation of all his superiors. General-in-Chief Winfield Scott said: "The march in depth of winter of Lieutenant Colonel Philip St. George Cooke, commanding the Second Dragoons, from Laramie through the South Pass to Green River, deserves, as it has already received, special commendation." House Executive Document No. 71, 35 Congress, 1 session, 100.
Cooke was accompanied by the newly designated territorial governor, Alfred Cumming.
32 John L. Dunyon, surgeon on General Wells's staff.
33 Colonel, later Brigadier General, Chauncey W. West, for many years the leader of the Militia in Weber County.
34 Captain Gove, in a letter dated December 4, op. cit., 102-03, states: "We have had no salt for nearly two months to issue to the command. . . . Brigham Young sent in to Col. Johnston some salt and an impudent letter; the Colonel told him to go back with his salt and tell Brigham not to attempt to hold any more communication with him or his emissaries would hang; that he could not treat with him only under a white flag, as he considered him as a traitor to his government and he should treat him as such. Good!"