The Utah War Journal of Andrew Jackson Allen
Edited and With Notes by Curtis Allen, a Great-Grandson.
Andrew Jackson Allen (1818-1884), descendant of pioneers and soldiers, joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Nauvoo, Illinois in 1846. At that time, the Church was abandoning the city that had been a rival in size to Chicago. Their leaving was at the threat of death from their neighbors because of political rivalry as well as religious differences. The latter was an excuse for eliminating the former.
Andrew began his journal in, as he states therein, his "39th year", which would have been 1856 or 1857. The daily entries appear to begin in July, 1857, a pivotal time in his life as well as in Utah's history. Everything in the journal up to that time is retrospective.
The following is a segment of the journal that pertains to the Utah War period, from just before it became clear the army was headed for Utah until the army had moved into Cedar Valley.
July 11, 1857
Had a company drill at willow creek where I lived for the first time.
July 23rd, 1857
Having got thro with my harvist I concluded to attend the selebration and a picnic party at the head of Big Cottonwood Canion 26 miles from my home.
I got to the lake that ware at the hed of the Canion at sevn o clock in the morning on the 23rd. Sea the boys cetching trought out of the lake which ware about 40 rods wide with splended timber surounding it and on the mountains ware fine range for animels etc. there ware drums fifes and bras instruments playing thro the day, at sundown the people ware calld to gether Brigham Young addrest them, in his discourse he toald the brethren thay should newer be drove from those valleys by there ennemyes <8> if they would do right etc. after which the party commenst at half past eight o clock. Continued till one o clock in the morning.
The morning of the 24th ware awaked by the sound of the drums and fifes etc., after we had purtuck of breakfast the people ware calld together at 9 o clock at ten too flags ware hoysted on too high peeks of the mountains on the north and south of the lake seven miles apart at the same time three rounds of canon and the parade of the Nauvoo legion. At half past eleven a.m. three more rounds canon and they returnd to camp again, had some songs from the brethren etc. Diner twelve o clock, dancing at too p.m. at five the teems ware drove up preparetory to start next morning at six in the morning annimels let at 1iverty garde placed out to garde annimels. Drumbes, fifes, bras bands playing the rounds canon at sun sit came to gether for prares at 8, then had a discourse from Bro Wells spoke of the mail beeing taken from our brethren by the government, and ware refused the chance to bring that part that belonged to our people he spoke of us beecoming a free and independent people, spoke of our numbers and the numbers in George Washingtons day when the Independence of the U.S. was gained etc. Then dancing commenced continued till late at night.
July the 25th
All hands for home I started at 6 o clock a.m. on horse back past teems all the way down the canon, no serious acksadent accuring in all the camp. The president first in the canion had and last out. The no. of persons at this celebration 2587, waggeons and cariages 464, horses and mules 1028, oxen and cowes 332.
I ware at S.L. Citty, saw a train of emmegrants going to Califournia, women and children. The repoarts that come from the states this summer is that there is greate excitement among the people stiring each other up to go against the saints in Utah and kill them of (off) John M. Burnhisel is our representative at Washington this year. (Note: This turned out to be the Fancher train which met disaster at the hands of Mormon Zealots in September at Mountain Meadows.)
John Taylor and Erastus Snow returned from the states say there is no safety for the saints. Parley P. Prat has been murderd be beeing waylayd and shot he was first tryed by the law and could not find annathing against him they let gow and some ruffins followed him shot at him and then stabd with a knife.
Taylor and Snow had to pas thro the fronteers of missoury in desguise to save there lives, the word are thay are sending a new governor and other terrytorial officers all jentiles the worst ennimies to the saints they can find twenty five hundred soaldiers with them to forse them uppon us whether we are willing or not.
I ware at Cottenwood Nauvoo legion ware drilling. I ware calld on to go out to the line of Utah territory and meet the soalders. It ware repoarted thay ware bothring our emmogration on the plains (to know there buisness). There ware ten men cald on from the Willow Creek division.
Too men came in to Salt Lake Citty buying up all the amonition thay could. Thay ware taken up as spyes and put in prison. Ammonition ware verry scarse and harde to get.
Brigham Young which ware the governor of Utah declared he had been drove with this people four times for the people of the U.S. Thay drove us here in to the willderness hoping we would perish, and now thay ware on our track again, and we had never violated the laws of the U.S. He was not disposed to stand it anny longer, he told the brethren we would meet them as a mob and defend our selvs the best we could (that he had no notis of anny sich a moove etc.)
Our ten met to arange for a fit out for the campaign. Recd orders to be reddy for a start by the 23rd if kneeded.
Recd orders to remain at home till further orders, spent the weak halling up the stacking of wheat, got out a grist and went to the mill on the 28th heard the expres that came in from Deer Creek confurming the repoart that there was a large quantity of baguage waggeons on the way here with a new governor and other terytorial officers and soaldiers.
August 29 attended jeneral muster we ware instructed to get our thrashing done and get ready for the worst.
The latest newse are that the soaldiers are mooving on to Utah tho Janeral Harney and some part of the soaldiers had been calld back to attend to some other affares.
Capten Vanbleet <9> of the government officers came to Salt Lake Citty. I ware there brigham spoke on the stand said that all the governors of missoury and Illinoys ever done for the saints ware to order out the malissia to keep the mormons still till the mob could destroy them said we ware free from mobs in these mountains and intend to be from this time etc. . . . Vanbleet had come here to surch out winter quarters for the armey etc. Brigham toald him the armey could not come in to these valleys that we had seen enough of jentile officers driving among this people, that if civil men would come in here all right but we had no use for soaldiers and we would not have them.
Got orders to attend a three days training on the next Saturday. Mr. Vanblete and Bro Burnhisel our representative to congres started to the states to gether. We are awaiting to here what the armey will do when Vanvlete meets them we expect to here whether thay intend to come in to the valleys or not.
Sept 17th, l8th, and 19th training got thro the 19th at 4 o clock returned home 25 miles.
Got orders to start out to meet the soalders as thay intend to come in, started the same day went to S.L. City.
Travild out to the foot of the big mountain camp over night here we met the expres advised us to lieve out our bagguage waggeons we did so and traviled on carying our provisions and bedding on our annimels, tuck dinner at East Canion, travild on got to weber at sun down took supper, travild on up Echo Canion eight miles campt for the night.
Early start, noon nere cash (Cache) cave, here Jeneral Wells our jeneral and staf past us, we tuck supper at yellow creek then mooved on to Bear rivver campt for the night.
Lurned the soaldyers camp ware traviling up Hams fork. We mooved on noond on little muddy, reached Bridger at night.
Jeneral Wells sent a message to them thay could winter in the territory if they would gave up there armes.
Lay in camp, sent Lat Smith with 50 men on to Green Rivver to watch the moovs of the back trains etc. We went to and cashed all the property of value at Bridger also sent out 30 men to watch the moovements of the camp of soaldiers. I went for one of them, we went 20 miles campt on Smiths fork getting there 10 o clock at night.
We ware under poarter rockwell. took our purvisions on behind us and went on to Hams fork where the soaldiers ware and sea how thay ware gettin along and stop them if possable. We intended to stampeed if possable there annamels, when we got there it ware night and there mules ware kept so cloast we could not get to them and there cattle we see ware so weak we concluded to not desturb them and we mooved off about too miles and campt turned out our annimels made no fier but went to bed.
Travild on got ahead of the camp on the rivver seaing there picket guarde as we travild, put fier In the gras about one mile ahead of them putting one man out as picket garde to watch there moovs. We had fierd about 4 miles when he notified us there ware horsemen pursuing us we rode out into the hills, travilld on up the rivver about eleven miles campt got dinner etc. At sunset we sent 15 men back to where we left of and fierd the gras all the way up to our camp.
When we had just finished our breakfast we sea three men on the high peaks we supposed were there picket guarde they ware nere by our camp, we saddled our annimels and commenced fireing the gras again and fierd six or eight miles firther, then sent men to examin there camp again, we had been toald thay were expecting draggons up from the states. I can now sea fier on the Muddy and Blacks Fork put out by some of our boys.
We are informed the soaldiers camp is in the same place (not mooved). The word is the cournal and Jeneral had mooved there quarters back to Bare rivver. The boys we went to see after the soaldiers camp mist there way and could not find our camp and campt out. One of the brethren sick today with mountain feever and lay hands on him in the name of the lord and the preast hood.
Recd our boys that lay out all night. This after noon one of the soaldiers dezurted and came to our camp he toald us there had six dezurted the night before said the officers ware verry hard on them etc. We eat the last of our grub to day (our sick man is mending fast).
Mooved our camp on to Black's Fork no grub came yet, no breakfast many out hunting rabbits. I had some coffee I drank. Mooved on to muddy to day here we got our supplyes of purvision at sun set. Coffee, tea, shugar, meat and flower. To day we sent our dezurted soaldiers in to the valley. Snow on the ground three inches deep.
Here we fell in with cornel Maccallesters company. They tell us that Lat Smiths company had burned 73 waggeons loaded with surplyes for the armey. They ware loaded down with groceryes of all kinds had on 40 hundred on each waggeon those waggeons ware on green rivver and sandy thay also drove of 150 head of cattle that belonged to them. We mooved on five miles where we fell in with Lot Smiths company. We sent in to the soaldiers camp to know if they would 1ieve the country.
Slight snow fell, we lerned the soaldiers camp had mooved. Sent too men to sea which way they had went by eight o clock we lerned thay had mooved up Hams Fork, now there was 80 of our boys go gether we started amediatly after them we over took them in traviling 20 miles found them in a scatterd condition, we cut of there cattle which ware behind about seven hundred head and drove them 14 miles after night. Our annimels had not had food nor watter all day. We thought to drive on to Blacks fork but at ten o clock at night we camped not finding watter and tied our horses to the sage brush without feed or watter when morning came we ware within one mile and a half of the rivver.
We drove to the rivver and killd a fat cow that war in the hird and cooked breakfast. We injoyed our meal verry much in deed, we baked our bred by roaling the doe around a stick and stuck it in the ground before the fier my annimel ware weak and this drive nerly used him up. We sent too of our boys in to camp with an express and they kep them prisoners, after the cattle had rested and graised about 5 ours we sent them to Bridger 1 went for one to drive them we reached Bridger on the l4th.
Then sent them on to the valley 1 went up to foart surply to recruit my men and here I met with some of my oald comrads that started with me from home. Today one of the boys that ware taken prisoner came back, he informes us that there is some mountaineers dooing all against our people thay can. Now we sent and tuck one of the mountaineers prisoner that kept a trading poast on Green Rivver and all his store his name was Yates, there is another by the name of Baker now piloting the armey.
I am in quarters recruiting.
Stil quarters plenty beef, flower, turnips, potatoes, unions. Here thay had been some farming done and the people had left and gon in to the valley, to day we here there had been too moar of our boys taken prisoners one of ther names Taylor. Today the snow falling all day.
Coald and windy snow ten inches deep, we here the soaldiers scouting tryed to surround some of our boys and fiard after them them when thay faled to accomplish there ame no one hurt, one of our boys had a ball pas thro his hat. <10>
Some snow falling but thaughing. All hands calld together to pick out the weakest annimels to send them in to the jenerals camp at Echo. They ware 50 of the best annimels with there riders picked out to watch the moovs of the soaldiers, and 30 left at foart Surply and Bridger the rest sent to the Jenerals camp at Echo. I stopt at foart Surply we heare to day the soaldyers camp had turned about and are traviling down Hams Fork..
To day fine, sent out 5 men to watch the moovs of the camp. I lay in camp eight days owing to my annimil not beeing fit to use.
Too more of the teemsters left the soaldiers came to our camp. To day there was a possey of men sent to the mountaineers (Yates) place to bring in his affects some goods and some annimals.
The soaldiers say thay are waiting for the Jeneral to come from the states with some draggoons.
Our boys when scouting around came acrost some soaldiers out to and the soaldiers fierd at them, this ware the second time they fiard at our boys and no hurt done <11>, we acknowledge the hand of the lord in this (our boys had instruction to not fier at them if they could avoyd it). Our boys took one of there men prisoner brought him to camp twenty more of our boys sent in to the Jenerals quarters with annimels we had got.
There was 10 men calld for at Bridger to gow on a scout to the soaldiers camp. I went for one of them, when we got to Bridger we ware not kneeded so we went back to Ft. Surply.
There was one more prisoner taken by our boys, 100 hed of cattle and three mules.
2 more desurters came to our camp.
20 more horses taken and one more prisner, and forwarded on today we ware all calld to come down to bridger. There was 29 men appoynted to gow with Ephrem Hanks to gow on a scout to the soaldiers camp. We recd our instructions from Jeneral Wills he toald us todo as we had been toald and the god of Isreal would be with us to bless us and we would all return safe that we ware out to the defend the kingdom of god and our wives and children. He cutioned us to be prareful and all would be right, we started at 10 o clock at night, went 12 miles stopt turned out our annimels placed out a garde made no fier, started early next morning, travild on 2 miles here we got breakfast and organized our selvs as we ware dyrected in fiftyes and tens I ware chosen capten of one of the tens. Hanks capt of the company we had in the company Mager Macray, we travild down blacks fork 5 miles where we met Capt Snows company thay toald us we ware in ten miles of the soaldiers camp. We camp got supply at eleven at night the camp ware awaken by the noyse of cattle beeing drove, into camp by some of Snows boys thay had taken of the soaldiers camp at 12 o clock we started for the soaldyers camp, when we got there we stopt within one mile of the camp where we could see there camp fiers sent six men to examin there camp and the situation of there stock etc. Boys returned repoarted not favorable, we went of a fiew miles and wated all the next day, in the evening returned back to the same place and at one o clock made a breake on there stock drove away about 75 head of cattle started them on to camp and went back and got 60 head more. The boys that went with the first 75 head got lost and left the cattle go some of them did not get to camp till 7 o clock the next morning it ware snowing all of that night one man did not get to camp for too days.
In this drive we got to our camp 90 head of cattle, the next night one of our company and ten men from the nother company drove to our camp 180 hed of cattle and mule and tuck one prisener.
Started the stock in to Bridger, we got word the soaldiers camp ware mooving toward Bridger, and we started amediately for Bridger. We sent an express to Bridger a head of us when we got out on the high land we could sea the soaldyers camp mooving. We stopt at sun set and got supper snow on the ground 4 inches deep and falling fast here on of our boys came up from the states and he sais they intend to come in to the valley.
Snow 10 inches deep and stil falling. The Jeneral and our boys moove there baguage waggeons etc. from Bridger down to Ecco canon as thay did not intend to fight them at Bridger. Capt. Hanks and Cornel Burten and there men camped 12 miles west of Bridger in the seadors.
Capt Hanks and with ten men went back to Bridger to watch there moovs the rest of the companyes mooved on 2 miles found better camp ground and better horse feed.
We started on for Bare rivver, capt snow with his company at pioneer hollar 17 miles from Bridger to keep up an express station, we reached Bare rivver at eight o'clock at night.
Snow 12 inches deep and more falling high winds and coald this morning we here the one more of our boys that more takin prisoner are reliast.
No word from the soaldiers camp, 27 more of our boys ware sent to Echo to the Jenerals quarters. This morning I got some butter sent from home got the first word from home that I had recd since I left.
Verry coald Bare rivver frozed over till a man can pas over on the ice, no word from the soaldiers camp yet.
Clear and coald, Nov 14 ice on the river Bare a horse our provisions runing low nothing but bread. The boys went out hunting killd too chickens.
Got word the soaldiers had mooved up Blacks fork within 5 miles of Bridger, too baguge waggeons cam to our camp with provisions and some oats for our horses.
Wether fine some men out lookin gras for annimels returnd repoarted pure chance some in the mountains.
Mooved the annimels on to the hills, 50 men with fresh annimels came to our camp got word the soaldiers camp had mooved to Bridger. Sent 10 men with the purest annimels to Echo too of those ware from my ten.
Nov. 18 & 19th
Fine still laying in quarters, the number in camp 100 men. Beef and flower runing low.
50 more men ware sent to Echo to the Jenerals quarters. I was one of the number. We met provision on the way to our camp.
Got orders to go on to Weber and recruit here the ground was partly bare of snow, here I fel in with Mager Tilor from home at Willow Creek and Cornal Harmon with there command. There ware 20 of the boys right from willow creek here I got a bundle from home that I kneeded very much.
The Mager and too other men ware going in home for furlows. I applyed to the Cornal Harmon and got to come home on a furlow for eight days.
Started for home with three others, some snow falling we past over the big mountain got to the hed of parleys canon at dark, past thro the canon and got to father Rawlenses at eleven o clock at night.
Warm and raining in the valley, reached home at eleven o clock at night. Found all well.
Bro Joshua Terry came in from nere the soaldiers camp sed thay ware building there winter quarters at bridger, orders has been recd for all of the boys to come home but 50 men them to stop and guarde etc. I suppose while on this expedition I travild one thousand miles at least. Brigham Young who ware then govner of Utah on hearing thay soaldiers ware out Salt sent them a wageon load of salt to them, Cornal Johnsten said thay would not have the salt, first took the boys prisoners and afterwards let them gow toald them Brigham was not governer that the governor ware in there camp etc. Thay ware out of salt and had been offering a very big price for salt. There object ware to foarse a govner and other territoryal officers on us whether we ware willing or not.
Fine wether some plowing there land, no late newse from the soaldiers.
I ware in Salt Lake Citty, herd there that the soaldiers and teemsters had fallen out and had a fight eight men killd while in the citty. I sea some teemsters passing thro on there way to Califournia, thay ware right from Bridger. The teems that ware fraiting from states to S.L. Citty ware stopt at Bridger by the U.S. Officers. All kinds of goods are verry scarse. Clothin hard to get.
Jan 1st 1858
Cleare and fine, I had not herd anny late newse from the soaldiers.
Snow to inches deep south wind.
Stil fine 4 inches snow frosty night, today 4 of our brethren 2 of the twelve appostles orson Prat and E.T. Bensen came in from a mission from Urope, they say when they past thro the states thay had to pas as men going to Califournia to keep from beeing taken up.
We are making arangements to gow out in the spring to defend our people from our ennemies from the U.S.
As well as those on our boarders, I was selected for one 15 was to gow from Willow Creek where I 1ive.
We ware, notified to attend a meeting at Cottenwood to get orders in relation to a fit out, we ware toald it would take six hundred dollars to fit a man out for that camppeighn as it would be for one year.
Wether fine stock doing well, the brethren making reddy to start out on ther camppeighn when calld on the soaldiers are still at Bridger and say they still intend to come in as soon as spring opens.
The callifournia mob came in to day the newse is that the president of the U.S. is going to send on enough soaldiers to kill all the mormons of. (off)
We ware orderd to get our fitout and be reddy at a moaments warning to start out in to the mountains on our campain.
There was a man came in to Salt Lake Citty from the citty of Washington whose name ware Cane <12> he seems to be a man of some not (note). He is pleading for piece, he tels us that the president seas that the soaldiers are in our hands at bridger and the snow is verry deep and there supplyes is getting verry low etc. Mr. Cane asks Brigham to not kill them and he thinks they will be called back in the spring. (Cornel Cain, for that seems to be his title) is going to visit the soaldiers at Bridger as soon as he can…
Cornel Cain started out to Bridger and accompanied by three of the brethren.
Word came in that the Indians had made a read on the brethren at Salmon rivver, had killd too of the brethren and stole some horses and cattle, there was some mountaneers with the Indians and it is believed thay are the cause of it.
One hundred brethren started to sea after the brethren at Salmon rivver.
The brethren that went with Cornel Cain had returned say he is still at Bridger thay
say it seems he is a friend to the saints.
I heard to day that the Indians stole a quantity of cattle from Rush valley.
I ware at S.L. Citty heard Brigham say it was not wisdom for us to come into collision with the U.S. troops at this time, that if they would come in to the valley we would vacuate this valley and all the northern settlements and travil south.
The brethren met to make some arraingements for traviling south the spirit of god ware with us. The Indians have been steeling more horses and cattle from Seder Valley.
Cornel Cane and the new governor that ware at Bridger are on there to the valley. Bro Brigham and his council and the twelve apostles and part of there famelyes are on the moove south <13>. . . .500 men orderd to be reddy amediatly to gow out east to be on garde.
The brethren met the bishop proposed in our traviling south we organized in companyes to suit our conviniance which was adapted. I was chosed Capt of one company. There was about eight in a company.
My company met at my house to make some arangements for traviling etc. We desided we would move our grain first and let our famelyes remain and return for them.
I ware at conferance at S.L. citty it only lasted one day.
General Note: On this date in Washington, President Buchanan signed a proclamation of pardon and amnesty.
Cornel Cain and the new governor came in (His name was Commens) (Cumming). He seems to expres a simpathy for the people sais he don't want to be governor if the people do not want him etc.
Last night the Indians stole 100 head of horses from Bro Hails hird ground, the Indians that were steeling at Samon rivver has come to Cash valley and stolen 70 bushels of wheat. The people are leeving that give the Indians a chance to steel. We believe the U.S. officers at Bridger are putting them up to it.
It is now desided that the people of Willow Creek locate at the presant at mountainvill in the Utah valley only a short distance from our settlement about 15 miles.
A large portion of the brethren that ware sent out east to garde against the soaldiers have been orderd home.
Mr. Commens the new governor made it public that if there ware anny of the people in Utah who wished gow away, he would sea them safe out etc. Brigham Young cal1d on the people to make it known if there was anny who wished to gow away, there was four pursons wished to gow thay did not belong to the saints.
I went to mountain vill to look out a place to move to as this ware the place our
settlement ware to move to. Other settlements went further south located in different parts of Utah valley. Just as it might be convineant for them etc.
The brethren are buisely mooving there wheat south. The young growing wheat look verry fine.
The road south are lined with waggeons traviling south.
I spent the 5 and 6th putting in garden seeds at my new location returned hom on the 7th to my oaId place.
The would be governer Commons had gon south also fur what purpes I do not know tho I suppose to make all the discoveryes he can.
An express came in from Bridger for the governor Commens. He left the 19th felling quite favorable. He sea his wife ware at Bridger and he intended to bring hir in to the vally on a visit. To day ware the day for our meeting the seventyes took the leed it fell to my lot to preside in the meeting. We had some verry good instruction was to be wise, lurn the will of the lord and do it. This preasant moove south ware the salvation of this people. The understanding ware that if the soaldiers did come in to S.L. citty evry man ware to set fiar to his own house and burn it to the ground there should be nothing left for them to inhabit. So thay might get our improvements (which thay had said they would get)
I ware at Provo citty, the road ware lined with waggeons cattle, horses sheap and hogs, etc. mooving south. I sea three men from Mexico thay wanted to see Brigham thay had heard of our people going to 1ieve Utah and thay wanted to sell us land.
I ware in surch of one of my annimels that had strayd on the east side of Utah Lake. I sea a settlement there of the brethren that had left hes homes and travil south there houses ware mad of willows and cano grass they looked verry much like indian houses.
The orders are for all to be out of S.L. valley amediately as there ware some that had not started yet.
Governor Commens returnd and his wife with him, also a investegating commitee straight from Washington to inquire in to matters in Utah.
I mooved my famely to Utah valley and set them down without anny covering only a waggeon cover on a waggeon box.
The commettee and Commens and Brigham and the twelve appostles met at S.L. Citty thay ware there three days. There they agreed to be feasible and bring the soalders thro S.L. Citty and not disturb anny thing and locate them in cash valley or scull valley
The armey came in to S.L. citty marched thro the past over Jorden and camped (this occurred on the 26th.), Jentiles merchants came in with there stores Brigham told the brethren to not trade with them til there was some arangements made between us and them.
Brigham told the brethren to be incouriaged that they would gow back to there old homes. To day I am at my oald place on Willow Creek I can see the soaldiers camp mooving up Jordan.
The soaldiers are campt west of the Jorden rivver about 15 miles west of my place I came see there camp from my house.
The word came to our camp that we could moove back to our homes.
Me with many others mooved our affects back.
The soaldiers camp mooved the Seder valley. <14>
8 It was at this celebration that Porter Rockwell, Judson Stoddard and Abraham O. Smoot arrived from the east with news of an army marching to Utah (later known as "Johnston's Army") to depose Brigham Young and put down the "Mormon Rebellion", See Appendix A.
9 Captain Stewart Van Vleit, USMA 1840, was a quartermaster officer sent to Utah Territory to determine what supplies would be available locally for use by the army. On the one hand, Buchanan was sending the largest force of troops since the Mexican war to Utah and on the other, asking the local "rebellious" Mormons to feed them.
10 Mark Hall of Ogden was the man with the holed hat.
11 It is not surprising that no one was hit. The troops were largely recruits from the streets and alleys of New York and other eastern cities. They had almost no training. The Camp Floyd guard reports include the report of target practice. The best shots were rewarded for coming closest to the target as they rarely hit it.
12 This was Thomas L. Kane, a friend of the Mormons from earlier days. He had Buchanan's permission but not official status to try to mediate between them and the army. His commission as a Colonel was a militia one.
13 The "Move South" was part of a general evacuation of Salt Lake City in case the army occupied the place. There were men stationed throughout the city to burn the homes and buildings and leave nothing. The settlements in San Barnardino, Carson Valley and other distant areas were abandoned permanently. The San Bernardino settlement, purchased from a Spanish land grant, would have included most of that present city.
14 The army first camped in the north end of Cedar Valley but soon discovered the water supply as inadequate and after two months moved south ten miles and established Camp Floyd next to Fairfield. It soon became the largest army installation in the country.
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